Between 1880 and 1915, the style and substance of the ideal American middle-class home changed. From a Victorian motif reflecting privilege and ostentation, a new aesthetic emerged. By 1905, the new Craftsman movement had come to embody new values, many of which were related to trends of Progressivism and reform. These new values were reflected in the Craftsman bungalow style, which was a definite departure from Victorian domestic traditions. Looking at architecture, decoration and furniture (what historians call "material culture") we can trace this shift in ideas.

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