History 104: Western Civilization since 1648

Lecture: Romanticism and Socialism

Ludwig von Beethoven
Portrait by J.K.Stieler 1819-20
Karl Marx
Karl Marx

There just isn't anything like Beethoven's Ninth Symphony (Symphony in D Minor, opus 125), completed in 1824. Using Friedrich Schiller's poem Freude (Joy), the last movement is as much an ode to freedom as to joy. Beethoven himself had been a supporter of Napoleon, until he crowned himself emperor; freedom was Beethoven's creed. (Lyrics for this section in German and English)

Unlike some other music selections in this course, I have grave misgivings about putting up a "clip" of this symphony. If you get a chance, get the whole thing, on CD. Lie down on the floor and turn it up loud. I wish I could remember who said this was a cure for depression; I think it was Garrison Keillor.

Some day the workers will take possession of your city hall, and when we do, no child will be sacrificed on the altar of profit!

-- Mother Jones (1903)



All text, lecture voice audio, and course design copyright Lisa M. Lane 1998-2018. Other materials used in this class may be subject to copyright protection, and are intended for educational and scholarly fair use under the Copyright Act of 1976 and the TEACH Act of 2002.