When society fears a certain race, works of literature enhance that fear. Carl Becker said, "Generally speaking, men are influenced by books which clarify their own thought, which express their own notions well, or which suggest to them ideas which their minds are already predisposed to accept" Unfortunately, society comes across periods of time were it's citizens fear a certain race. Literature doesn't always create this fear but it does perpetuate and enhance it.
Fear of a select race in a society often stems from misinformation. When society doesn't understand a certain culture the society will often fear that race. Works of literature can perpetuate this misinformation. The novel "Red Rock" by Thomas Nelson Page written in 1898 was exactly this type of fiction. It can be viewed at http://www.catscradlebks.net/pictures/medium/310057.jpg.The novel portrayed freed slaves in a negative light. It is considered Page's most popular novel and was his claim to fame in the southern literature community. The main antagonist was an African American man who attempted to rape a white woman, and was later lynched for his crimes. It shows the freed black slave as untrustworthy and dangerous. This misinformation contributed to the fear of the "uncontrollable black animal" created during and after reconstruction. Another novel that perpetuated this type of information is "The Redskins: Indian and Injin" by James Fenimore Cooper written in 1846. This novel can viewed at: http://ia600805.us.archive.org/zipview.php?zip=/8/items/olcovers75/olcovers75-L.zip&file=756669-L.jpg. Often portraying Native American's in his novels as "red devils," Cooper added to the stereotype of the savage Native American. Also in many of his novels, such as "The Redskins," he would portray Native Americans as alcoholics.Cooper's numerous uses of this character-type throughout his fiction suggest that Cooper considered alcoholism to be an inevitable consequence of contact between Indians and whites. These misinformations led society to not only fear but also disrespect the Native American. Finally the novel "The Color Purple," written by Alice Walker in 1983 is a perfect example of fiction perpetuating fear and hate. This novel can be viewed at: http://www.africanamericancollection.com/images/The%20Color%20Purple%20cover146%20kb.jpg. The novel takes place in rural Georgia in the 1930s. This book although written in a much more modern time still portrays African American families, especially African American men in a negative light. It graphically displays exploitations of incest, teenage pregnancy, illiteracy and colorism within the African American community. Further continuing the stereotype and misrepresentation of African Americans. Even in the 1980's the works of fiction contributed to the misinformation society casted on a whole sect of people.
Fear of a select race also steams from a built up anxiety of attack. Works of fiction are great source of such anxiety. When a society is made to feel like a certain race is attacking them, the entire race is blamed and therefore feared for future attacks. One example of such literature is "The Sovereignty and Goodness of God" by Mary Rowlandson written in 1682. It can be seen at: http://ia600806.us.archive.org/zipview.php?zip=/12/items/olcovers17/olcovers17-L.zip&file=173228-L.jpg. Mary Rowlandson was born in England but then settled in Salem, Massachusetts. Her novel portrays the Indian "savages" of the new world as murderers, committing violent crimes like stripping settlers naked and disemboweling them. She also writes of how the "Godless Savages" didn't have a proper religion and were heathens against Christianity. This novel became the first American Bestseller and frightened many people into not even traveling to the new world. If they did decide to travel they always expected attack and feared the savage Indian. Another example of this type of literature is "The Japanese Beetle" by William Hobart Royce written in 1942. This can be seen at http://library.brown.edu/find/Record/b2374583. This novel depicts the Japanese people leading up to the attack on Pearl Harbor. It portrays the Japanese people as Godless lemmings following their emperor blindly and feeding off the killing of innocent people. Considering the racial environment already taking place at the time with the interment of many people of Japanese decent, this work of literature of course didn't help. It perpetuated the current racial intolerance and fear of another Pearl Harbor that was already felt by many. Another literary example of fear of attack being perpetuated is "Osama's Revenge: The Next 9/11" written by Paul Williams in 2004. This book can be seen at: http://images.betterworldbooks.com/159/Osama-s-Revenge-9781591022527.jpg. This book, obviously written before the death of Osama bin Laden, explores the next attacks from radical Islam. It portrays Muslims as the only terrorists in the world and how they will attack again because of their overwhelming hatred for America. The novel instills the fear of another attack by showing multiple weaknesses America has yet to address, including suitcase nuclear weapons, al Qaeda sleeper cells, soviet nuclear sales, and al Qaeda acquiring scientists to build other weapons of mass destruction. Throughout the novel, Williams doesn't show a difference between a everyday Muslim and one who practices a radical violent sect of Islam. This lack of discrepancy only further perpetuates the fear of all Muslims and their next attack.
Fear of a select race also comes from a fear of losing ones own culture. Literature, ironically enough, is an integral part of ones culture and also a tool used to create a fear of another's culture. When societies dominate race fears their culture is being lost to a minority, fiction helps perpetuate the "dangerous" problems that would come from this change. One example of this type of literature is "Observations Concerning the Increase of Mankind" by Benjamin Franklin in 1751. The work can be viewed at: http://ia700809.us.archive.org/zipview.php?zip=/25/items/olcovers559/olcovers559-L.zip&file=5590943-L.jpg. This work shows how even a writer as respected as Benjamin Franklin can use fear of a race to protect ones own culture. Benjamin Franklin was a resident of Pennsylvania and during the 1750 there was a large influx of German Immigrants to Pennsylvania. He became upset, like many others of this immigration and wrote this work to instill a fear about the problems that Germanization would bring. This included laziness, illiteracy, clannishness, a reluctance to assimilate, excessive fertility, and Catholicism. Even Benjamin Franklin was not above creating a fear of another race to protect his English way of life.Another work that exemplifies this idea is the 1925 novel by John Dos Passos about life in New York City, titled Manhattan Transfer. It can be seen at: http://www.penguin.com.au/jpg-large/9780141184487.jpg. Passos shows that the culture of the Polish immigrants is ruining New York City. He writes, "The people of this country are too tolerant. There's no other country in the world where they'd allow it... After all we built up this country and then we allow a lot of foreigners, the scum of Europe, the offscourings of Polish ghettos to come and run it for us." Instilling the fear of the Polish taking over and running at things was Passos way of stopping the spread of their culture. Finally the last example of this sort of instilling of fear is Peter Brimelow's novel called Alien Nation: Common Sense About America's Immigration Disaster written in 1996. It can be seen at: http://photo.goodreads.com/books/1223675384l/343282.jpg.This novel highlights the problems with immigration and culture. Brimelow states that especially Mexican-Americans are destroying American culture and will continue to until drastic immigration laws are placed against them. He gives the perspective that if laws are not placed against them, "children will only be speaking Spanish as a first language." He states this both for Mexican-Americans and Anglo-Americans. He insights fear against the Mexican people because of their threat against a traditional American way of life.
In conclusion, there are several different ways through out several different eras that literature has increased the fear against a certain race. Weather that fear be motivated by the threat of attack, misunderstanding culture, or a fear of losing a traditional culture, literature is an influential medium that can change peoples perspectives. It is a powerful tool that can either help or cause harm by perpetuating fear.
When feminist movements make progress it is often accompanied by backlash where women are ridiculed. There are three periods of activism known as “feminist movements:” first-wave, second-wave, and third-wave feminism. Although these are the first organized feminist movements, the role and place in society of women has been under dispute since before 380 BC when Plato wrote his book The Republic. In this book, Plato recognized that women should be working alongside men as equals (May, 15, 2012, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protofeminist). It would take over 2,000 years for women to organize and create a movement for the right to vote.
First-wave feminism was all about women’s suffrage and the right to vote. The movement gained traction during the 19th century and continued on till the early 20th century, when they were granted that right. During this struggle women were often ridiculed and portrayed as if they were abandoning their families. An example of this portrayal is the cartoon “Election Day” by E.W. Gustin. In the drawing, the wife is leaving her husband with her crying babies at home to go vote (Election Day, E.W. Gustin, Jan. 1903, http://womenshistory.about.com/library/pic/bl_p_suffrage_cartoon1.htm). This made feminists appear to be horrible mothers at a time when being a mother and running a household was their main occupation. However the truth was that feminists would often hold peaceful marches or parades for women’s rights to raise awareness. Sometimes, they would even take their small children along like the woman pushing her small child in a stroller at the 1912 Feminist Suffrage Parade in New York (Feminist Suffrage Parade in New York City, Library of Congress, May 6, 1912, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Feminist_Suffrage_Parade_in_New_York_City,_1912.jpeg). In 1920 women were finally granted the right to vote, this along with the end of World War I ushered in the roaring twenties and the emergence of the flapper girl. The flapper girl was considered to be a young woman who truly embodied the feminist. She was independent and did what she wanted to, when she wanted (Alice Joyce, Bain News Service, 1926, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Alicejoyce1926full_crop.jpg).
World War I and II not only changed the face of Europe, but also the roles of women in both the home and the workplace. During these two wars women worked in factories and other workplaces that previously would have only hired men. This was due to a shortage of men in the workforce caused by many of the men fighting in the wars overseas. During this time the government and employers used posters like Rosie the Riveter to encourage women working in the factories (We Can Do It!, J. Howard Miller, 1942, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:We_Can_Do_It!.jpg). Rosie the Riveter became a cultural phenomenon that would empower women across America. However, in later years Rosie the Riveter was played down as an average woman doing a woman’s job and used in propaganda that served to make women’s jobs sound important to the war effort. This would also serve to reminded women that their role in the workplace was to supporting the men and was their job as a wife and as a woman in society (Our job to clothe the men who work and fight, unknown, 1943, http://john.curtin.edu.au/legacyex/women.html). After the wars many women would lose their jobs in the factories to the men returning from war. However, one of the biggest setbacks for women’s rights during this time period would be the founding of Playboy magazine. Advertised as entertainment for men, this magazine objectified women and made them little more than a plaything for men. (The First Issue of Playboy Magazine, Playboy, 1953, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pb1253.jpg). Women may have the right to vote but they lost their worth as strong individuals in society.
Second-wave feminism is most often referred to as “The Feminist Movement.” This movement occurred from the 1960’s to the late 1990’s, but persists to present day as what is considered third-wave feminism. These two movements both focus on the issues of legal inequalities between men and women, sexuality, discrimination in the workplace, reproductive rights, and more; with the only difference being that the third wave began to focus on the issues the second-wave had neglected such as the rights of colored women. The rights of African American women like Rosa Parks were not addressed in the first or second waves of feminism; however, the fight for racial equality often coincided with the fight for gender equality and it was not until the third-wave that it became a major element in the movement (Rosa Parks with Dr. Martin Luther King jr., Unknown, 1955, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Rosaparks.jpg). Feminists of the second-wave are often referred to as “bra burners;” this was due to an incident at the Miss American pageant where women were throwing away their bras (Bra Burners, Jo Freeman, 1968, http://secondwavestyle.tumblr.com/). No bras were actually burned at the event, but the term was coined by newspapers to associate the feminists with men who had burned their draft cards. This event was considered to be extremely UN-American and made a mockery of the feminists in the eyes of the public. In more recent years feminism has been misrepresented by groups like the Spice Girls, attempting to be the nineties version of the flapper. Claiming to be all about “girl power,” they do not represent what feminists have fought for. In many of the commercials featuring the group, they are trying to seduce a man and thus objectifying themselves (Walker Crisps Promotion, Walkers Crisps, 1997, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0HpRwWr4zfo&feature=player_embedded). The Spice Girls instead represent what the feminists are fighting against becoming.
Feminists fight for women to be treated as equals to men in society, however, the public often makes a mockery out of them. By insinuating that if women gain the right to vote that they will become horrible mothers and wives, the public will begin to look down on women fighting for their right to vote. Women have often been objectified by men, which is something feminists have also fought hard to change. Media like Playboy and the Spice Girls glamorize the idea of women as mere playthings. As if women are no more than a pretty face and body, rather than tough and independent like Rosie the Riveter or even the carefree flapper girl.
history new techniques in architecture have been experimented with, many of
which were found to be very useful. Not only does the building of new dwellings
demand money but it also demands manpower. Only recently have gas-powered
machines taken over the heavy lifting in the past different tools and
techniques were used to get similar results. The wealth of populated areas is portrayed through the uses of new
Tombs and memorials are seen around the world showing the dedications of rulers and the fearlessness of soldiers that have since passed away, other memorials are dedicated towards tracking astronomical patterns. The Kennet Long Barrow Tomb [1a] is a very intricate design with 3 chambers, being North, South, and East Chambers. The construction began about 3600 BC and it is estimated that 15,700 man-hours were expended to completion. There were approximately 46 burials ranging from gender and age. Previously people were buried in mass tombs with hundreds of people piled on top of each other. Being buried in a single grave or a tomb would have taken a long time to complete and in early history only powerful and wealthy people would have been buried in them. Stonehenge [1b] was built between 3000BC and 2500BC. It had to be built in three stages due to the stones having to be transported over hundreds of miles to the location of Stonehenge. The bluestones compose the inner circle within the formation and were transported from the southwestern tip of Wales. Each stone weighs 4 tons and about 80 stones were used. Just in the inner circle alone there was a lot of time and money put into the effort. The great sarsen stones, the outer circle, weigh up to 50 tons and were transported about 20 miles, due to their size an estimated 600 men were needed to move 1 stone and there are about 40. One purpose of Stonehenge is to track astronomical patterns and provide as a calendar, others believe it to be a place of rituals. Although it is unknown how Stonehenge was constructed it was the first of its kind. The Culloden Battle took place near Newlands, Highland on April 16, 1746. The Battle was between the Jacobite army and the government soldiers and was an exceptionally bloody battle. In remembrance of the soldiers that passed a monument now stand s at 20 feet high, Duncan Forbes began building the Culloden Memorial Cairn [1c]in 1881. Added later where large stones to commemorate the individual clans, the memorial are built of stone that have been cemented together costing many man-hours.
Government buildings are very iconic to the history of where they reside. Whether it be a supply base or a temporary prison they are all viewed as secure bases.The Fishbourne Roman Palace [2a] was the site of large granaries for the Roman army; they were constructed in 43AD. The first buildings were the granaries and later the surrounding palace buildings, center courtyard and gardens were added. The Palace looked very well designed and elegant with the new use of columns. The inner bath area was also a new architectural design. The Palace of the Popes [2b] is a very luxurious building and was enormously expensive consuming much of the papacy's income during its construction in 1252AD. The walls of the Palace stretch 50 meters into the sky giving it the identity of a strong fortress and showing the power of the Popes in the middle ages. The Palace was originally built as a home for the Pope but continued construction added chapels with beautiful frescos that still can be seen today. After 1791 the Palace was taken over by the Napoleonic French state to be converted into a military barracks and prison, during this time the palace was damaged and the interior was gutted to be used as stables. The architecture inside the Grand Chapel was a new technique used to create high ceilings called the rib vault. The arches join at the top and the legs form a half circle.The Senate House [2c] is located in the heart of Bloomsbury, London and was constructed in 1932. The Art Deco building is the second tallest in London towering at 210 feet. Charles Holden, the architect, used inspiration of ancient Greece when designing the interior of the building. The Senate House has many details put into the design making it a very costly building. The building is home to the administrative offices for the University of London and also houses the Senate House Library.
Cathedrals and places of worship are seen around the world; many cities have very intricate and large buildings to show they have money and power. Ely Cathedral [3a]is a Gothic style church located in Cambridgeshire, England. Construction began in 1083 and continued to 1375, there are 2 towers and the plan of the building is a cruciform. With this Cathedral they paid close attention to lighting within the chapel in a unique way. This is a new technique being used with different shapes of glass and colors. Quite a bit of money has been donated to the Cathedral for upkeep and restoration. Christ Church Cathedral in Oxford [3b] is a very embellished church; much work went into making such a beautiful creation. From the many stained glass windows to the various tombs and memorials you can see how much money and man-hours went into this building. The Cathedral was established in 1525 and was built with a Gothic style. The rib vaults in the ceiling have been taken to the next level with a beautiful chancel ceiling and there are sculpted crown moldings at every corner. Saint Paul's Cathedral [3c] began construction in 1632 but suffered a halting fire in 1666, the Great Fire of London; construction was not fully completed until 1723. St. Paul's Cathedral is England's only cathedral that has been built in a classical architectural design. The dome on top it the eye catcher of the building and was the part of the design Wren wanted to be perfect because the dome was so heavy new techniques were developed to support it. Wren turned the dome into a timber shell covered in lead; this allowed him to get the look that he wanted with the silhouette on the outside and high ceilings on the inside. His use of pendentives was ingenious and allowed him to create a successful building.
Architects over time have built very intricate buildings and have developed new techniques to complete the look they want. These techniques can be seen in different memorials, government buildings and cathedrals as well as many other buildings. With the use of new technology constructing buildings has become easier with the heavy lifting. I think that by looking at a building you can look into the mind of the architect by searching for all the different techniques that have been used and where they received their inspiration.
[1a] West Kennet Long Barrow Tomb, Neolithic 3600BC-2500BC, Salisbury Hill, England http://www.wessexarch.co.uk/images/avebury-teachers-kit/west-kennet-long-barrow
[1b] Stonehenge, Prehistoric 3000BC-1500BC, Wiltshire, England http://www.pretanicworld.com/stonehenge.html
[1c] Culloden Memorial Cairn, 1881, Newlands, Highland, Duncan Forbes http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/215522
[2a] Fishbourne Roman Palace, 1AD, West Sussex, England http://www.infobritain.co.uk/roman_britain_history.htm
[2b] Palace of the Popes, 1252AD, Avignon, France http://about-france.com/monuments/palace-avignon.htm
[2c] Senate House, 1932, London, England, Charles Holden http://decoarchitecture.tumblr.com/tagged/united-kingdom
[3a] Ely Cathedral, 1803-1375, Chambridgeshire, England http://www.elycathedral.org/history/the_story_cathedral.html
[3b] Christ Church Cathedral, 1525, Oxford, England http://www.sacred-destinations.com/england/oxford-christ-church-cathedral
[3c] St. Paul's Cathedral, 1632-1723, London, England, Christopher Wren http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/pd/c/christopher_wren,_st_pauls.aspx