The following are sample A and B Writing Assignment III's submitted by recent students. They are from several of my classes, but all are the format for Writing Assignment III.
(History 103: Early Western Civ)
Burials become more personalized when the focus on afterlife becomes more essential than the focus on present life.
In Ancient Egypt, individuals dedicated their time finding what objects would be place into their coffin. Shabti dolls would be placed in the tombs of the deceased. The Shabti dolls were used to accompany the deceased during their afterlife. Each doll was cast with a specific, personalized "spell" that was unique to the individual. (author:unknown, 1550-850 BC,
https://www.blendspace.com/lessons/Pqh2hRDBE3BejQ/egyptian-art) Another example, are the Son of Horus artwork. This particular artwork was used to protect all parts of the body which was going to remain in the coffin throughout the whole afterlife. (author:unknown, title: The Sons of Horus,date:1079-800BC,link:http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/aes/f/faience_amulets_the_sons_of_h.aspx)
In Ancient Greece, individuals paid close attention to the personalized steles that would cast over them during afterlife. Grave steles were personalized and sculpted for the individual prior to their passing. The grave steles took time and effort to make which allows one to recognize that there was much thought put into what one's grave stele should illustrate. This exposes the focus many individuals had on their afterlife. (author: unknown, title: little girl with dove, date:450-440 BC, http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/27.45). This is a grave stele which was used in order to represent the memory of the deceased. Loved ones would place these by their family members or friends grave sights in order to serve as a memory and recognition to that person's life. This particular stele shows a little girl holding onto a bird very closely with a sad look on her face. This allows us to conclude that the way the little girl is viewed in the image, is similar to how loved ones felt when the person close to them passed on-incredibly sad. Although some grave steles were more detailed, some were more on the plain side-yet still personalized. An example of this would be one representing a tombstone (author:unknown, title:grave stele, date:525-500 BC, link: http://www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online/search/251151).
During the Medieval time period, individuals possessed items in order to incorporate them in their burial. During the Medieval time period, a separate casket that was often full of books and personal belongings, was placed next to the casket of the deceased. The caskets full of belongings were engraved and full of significant treasures. This reveals that there was time and effort put into what should go along with that individual during their afterlife. (author: unknown, 14th Century, http://thomasguild.blogspot.com/2011_11_01_archive.html). Another example of this would be a box of belongings from saint Thomas Becket (author:unknown, title:Reliquary Casket with Scenes from the Martyrdom of Saint Thomas Becket, date: 1173-1180, link: Link: Museum of Modern Art). One can recognize that as the focus on the afterlife began to grow, many individuals burials became more personalized.
(History 104: Modern Western Civ - also helpful for History 106: History of Technology)
Given the option to explore, humans evolve with changing opinions of Technology, investing their time creating new ideas in trying to push the boundaries of humans understanding of science as a whole.
In trying to find out how the space around them works, great events happen that let science advance while attempting to reach for new goals. Brilliant minds take on a duty to inform the general public of these revolutionary ideas
The Principia was printed and published in hoping to explain the mathematical premise of a heliocentric world and the gravity that holds the planets in their place. (The Principia, Sir Isaac Newton, 1687, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philosophi%C3%A6_Naturalis_Principia_Mathematica)
The Royal Eise planetarium was created to show people how the shunned heliocentric model was possible and explain why planets don't collide into each other as they orbit the sun.(Royal Eise Eisinga Planetarium, Eise Eisinga, 1774-1781, http://www.planetarium-friesland.nl/en/)
Technology when as a tool expands the ability of the user. In some cases properly harnessed inventions can lead to powerful effects with devastating repercussions, along with a fear filled populous by the end.
A major advancement to medical science, the stethoscope allowed doctors to start diagnosing problems dealing with the internal systems of their patients. (Stethoscope, Rene Theophile Hyacinthe Laennec, 1819, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stethoscope)
The atomic bomb was a major technological breakthrough. Harnessing the power of the atom, the atomic bomb became a world changing and awe inspiring power of destruction and energy. (World War II, 1945,http://miracosta.mrooms.net/pluginfile.php/131450/mod_resource/content/2/15WWII.pdf)
When ideas of the changing world ensue fear, the beliefs become other creations that take on a physical form. An inspiration to invigorate the general population sometimes occurs.
The fear of an everchanging world and the idea to disown the new advancements that were sometimes taking peoples jobs and displacing the ideals of the working class (Luddites, 1812-1830’s,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luddite)
A take on medical science, Frankenstein played with the idea of humans playing god. With advancements in science it seemed like a possibility for humans to create something out of their control (Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus, Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, 1818,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frankenstein)
Technology may not always be immaculate, but these tools humans create are inspired by an ever adapting species to an ever changing world.
(History 105: History of England)
Excessive consolidation of monarchical power has consistently provoked radical responses that lead to substantial political reform.
Limiting monarchical power became a prevalent concept for radical political reformers.
1.The era of feudalism during the 13
century in England consolidated immense power in king John's reign. So total was his power over the people, that a group of 40 rebellious barons eventually forced the king to enact the Magna Carta in 1215 (Magna Carta, barons, 1215,https://www.archives.gov/exhibits/featured_documents/magna_carta/). This measure was an attempt to limit the power of the king, and thus a drastic political reform in response to excessive monarchical tyranny. Equally important was the concept of liberty that the barons instilled into society. This conceptual idea would endure and later motivate other radical reform to expand the liberties of individuals.
2. King Charles I enjoyed his monarchical power so much that he avoided parliament's advice for over 7 years. Such being the case, Charles implemented a forced tax on the people that would aid his position during the Thirty Years War. Such taxes as “ship money” were also initiated, but the people simply didn't pay. He was forced to call parliament after a 7 year dissolution. To mitigate his excessive power, parliament presented Charles with the Petition of Right (Petition of Right, Edward Coke, 1628,https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/11/Petition_of_Right.jpg) that outlined the limitations of the king to levy taxes without parliamentary consent. This theme is consistent with that of king John and the Magna Carta incident of 1215. Thus the political agenda of king Charles I reign was reformed due to his tyrannical rule.
The expansion of liberty was a central theme that radical reformers promoted.
1. Liberty expansion was a central theme for the Peasant's Revolt of 1483. Responding to the shortage of labor due to massive death tolls from the Black Death, the peasant population rebelled against King Richard II for his straining levy of taxes.(Peasants Revolt, Jean Froissart, 1483,http://www.bl.uk/learning/timeline/item132518.html). This radical demonstration of the peasantssupports the concept that liberty is due equally to all mankind. Despite the rebellions failure, it stands a beacon for rebellion in the name of reform.
2. King Henry VIII maintained prodigious power during his reign of England for nearly 40 years. Frustrated that his wife Catherine of Aragon would not bear him a male heir to succeed the throne and continue family rule, Henry flexed his monarchical powers to completely alter the political realm of England. The Act of Supremacy (Act of Supremacy, Henry VIII, 1534,http://www.parliament.uk/about/living-heritage/transformingsociety/private-lives/religion/collections/common-prayer/act-of-supremacy/) was implemented to outline the newly forged role of the king of England as head of the church. Thus, the Church of England was born with Henry as the proprietor and infallible leader. His immense power as king changed the political dynamic through the Act of Supremacy, and also altered political relations by inserting religious components into his rule. Although inadvertently, Henry punctuated on the concept of liberty as a necessary element in life.
Challenging orthodoxy was a concept that often stimulated political reform.
1. (95 Thesis, Martin Luther, 1517, http://www.luther.de/en/95thesen.html). Martin Luther has been credited as a central figure that sparked the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century. His 95 Thesis essentially challenged the Catholic church of their corruption of selling indulgences, simony, usury, nepotism and many more abject features. Luther's approach to religion was to place faith in God and scripture, not corrupt officials who charge a fee for penance. His efforts seem amiable for the time, and Luther was often identified as a radical thinker with the people's best interest in mind. His assertion to challenge orthodoxy stimulated dramatic socio-political reform.
2. John Locke's work heavily scrutinized the role of politics after the fall of James II from the throne of England (Two Treatises on Government, John Locke, 1690,http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/takingliberties/staritems/62johnlocketreatise.html). Central to Locke's argument in his "Treatises of Government" was that monarchy is an oppressive force over the people and should thus be abolished in exchange for a democratic republic. Writing in 1690, his thoughts were considered extremely radical. For Locke, sovereignty remained in the people, and the parliament served the people in return for their elected position. This was a massive dynamic shift in ideology, especially since abusive monarchy had been fully alive just 2 years prior to his publication. Other thorny topics are examined in his work, such as the role of slavery, property and war. He also examines the earlier idea of the 'State of Nature' that was initially proposed by Thomas Hobbes. In accordance with Locke's radical views, he diverts from traditional Hobbesian assertions that prior to government societies were brutish and war-like.
Notes: Although explanation was not needed for each source to support our topics, I included a brief summary to help generate ideas and connections for myself. It helped me prepare for the final essay.
(History 111: Modern U.S.)
The Declaration of Independence states that ‘All men are created equal’ yet at any given time in Modern American history, the outlook of society has betrayed the country’s founding ideals of equality.
Back as far as 1619 when the first slaves were brought over from Africa to the American colony in Jamestown, black people were treated unfairly and unequally. If “All men are created equal” then this treatment of black people should have been dealt with at that time. Instead America continued using black African American slaves to help build the economic foundations of the new nation. Many slaves were treated badly as outlined by Frederick Douglass in his 1845 narrative ( http://www.frederick-douglass-heritage.org/) Even after the American Civil War (1861-65) when four million slaves were freed after the Union victory, the legacy of slavery continued to have an impact on American history with continued discrimination against black people. The first manifestation of the Ku Klux Klan during the Reconstruction era used threats and violence in response to the newly gained political and civil rights by southern blacks after the civil war. The Union As it Was, a cartoon created by Thomas Nast in 1874, depicting members of the Ku Klux KLan intimidating a black family who huddle in fear. (http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/articles/history-archaeology/ku-klux-klan-reconstruction-era).
Another, even larger sector of the population have faced bias and discrimination; women. Yes, the Declaration states that all MEN are equal, but this is an umbrella term, covering mankind. Before and after the civil war notable leaders of the emancipation of women movement included Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton who hosted the Seneca Fall Convention on women’s rights and Susan B Anthony, all of whom had campaigned for slavery abolition before championing women’s right to vote. The National Woman's Party (NWP), was a women's organization founded in 1917 that fought for women's rights during the early 20th century in the United States, particularly for the right to vote on the same terms as men. It wasn’t until World War 1 that there was the final push for women’s suffrage in America. In January 1918 President Woodrow Wilson relented and gave a pro suffrage speech. In 1919, women got the right to vote when Congress passed the Nineteenth Amendment. This 1919 picture shows women protesting for their rights in front of the White House (http://2012books.lardbucket.org/books/united-states-history-volume-2/s07-from-populism-to-the-progressi.html) prior to the Nineteenth Amendment. During both the First and Second World Wars women replaced men in the workplace as the men went overseas to fight. They also filled many new jobs that were created to serve the war effort. After both Wars, women often had to return to their duties at home as they were no longer required in the workplace. This was a set back because although they had previously fought for the right to vote, they were now doomed to back in their role as subservient to men. This 1950 advertisement (http://www.partselect.com/JustForFun/Top-Vintage-Christmas-Ads.aspx) asks wives to choose their Christmas present from several household items implying that this must be the present of choice for the wife whose role is looking after the husband, house and children. It also implies that the husband must be the one to buy the item as the wife has no money of her own. After holding vital war time jobs, women were being told to get back in the kitchen where they rightfully belong. If women did want to work they were encouraged to take jobs that were seen as appropriate for females. This page from The State in 1958 shows how help-wanted advertisements were typically designated as either male or female help.(http://www.teachingushistory.org/tTrove/wantads.htm)
Members of the the homosexual community have also been treated unfairly and unequally. In the New York Times 1903 news clipping (http://outhistory.org/oldwiki/images/thumb/2/26/AaaAristonNYTFeb22%2c1903.jpeg/400px-AaaAristonNYTFeb22%2c1903.jpeg) we read about the police raid at the Ariston Bathhouse, the first New York City establishment to be raided over its patron’s sexuality. Sixty men were detained and fourteen arrested due to ‘questionable conduct’. Twelve men were put on trial, seven of whom received prison sentences of multiple years. Things had still not improved for the homosexual community by the 1940’s and 50’s. Along with the ‘Red Scare’ was the ‘Lavender’ scare where republicans stated that homosexuals had infiltrated the federal government during the Roosevelt and Truman administrations and that they along with suspected communists posed a real threat to national security. Homosexuals were considered to be psychologically disturbed and mentally weak which meant they could be easily blackmailed into revealing state secrets. The persecution of homosexuals continued under the Eisenhower administration - civil servants could be dismissed for associating with a known homosexual and many described being interrogated by government security officials about their sex lives. Newspaper reports such as this one in the St. Petersburg Times May 25th 1950 reported the news that ‘perverts’ were officially seen as bad security risks.(http://imgur.com/gallery/cevcM)
It can be seen then, that the original ideal of ‘All men are created equal’ in the Declaration of Independence has been betrayed time and time again and that this continues to this day with discrimination against various sections of American society.