Sample Final Essays

The following are sample A and B Final Essays submitted by recent students. They are from several of my classes, but all are the format for the Final Essay.

(History 103)

The advancement of weaponry was a result of the declining political power. Weaponry has been necessary for defending homes from invaders or conqerors, this was the basic necessity of weapons and served its purpose when needed. Unfortunately when power or a struggle for power come into the equation, the politicans or rulers start to panic and results in weapons increasing substantially to make sure their empire will stay together, and they keep the power. There are three notable actions which result in weaponry increasing substantially; when a rebel force tries to overthrow a political power, when the religious control decreases, and infighting within a empire.

Rebellious fighting within a empire allowed weaponry to become much more advanced due to the political power trying to keep their empire together. When the political power becomes fearful of this force, they start trying to quite down these forces using more advanced tactics and become even more equipped to battle an enemy who was once considered a ally or had no dealing with the political powers. A example of this would be the French Bible showing crusaders killing jews in a execution style (French Bible, Jews identifiable by their hats, 13th century, When the catholic church (The main political power of the time) started to fear the powers of the other religions and the  religions influencences on people and politics, the Catholic church started the crusades to quite other religions influence on the Catholics power. This quieting of rebellious power was also expressed by the later roman catholics against the newly formed calvanists, who the romans thought to be a threat to their religion as well as their political power (François Dubois, Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre, 1572 - 1584, While this isn't a exectution of certain calvanists like the jews during the crusades, this is much more of a purge of the other religion using gruesome tactics and advanced weapons against the lesser armed calvanists (the roman catholics are using muskets against them while the calvanists are using any weapon they can find, or no weapon at all). Another example of gruesome tactics and overly armed force against a rebellious force would be Truchsess Georg III. von Waldburg (Bauernjörg), the Scourge of the Peasants during the german peasant wars of the 16th century (Christoph Amberger, Truchsess Georg III. von Waldburg (Bauernjörg), the Scourge of the Peasants, 1526 -1530,,_Truchsess_von_Waldburg). While the peasant wars only lasted around two years, the nobility of the regions were losing power over their lands as well as their working force due to the peasants wanting freedom based Martin Luthers teachings, the nobility armed people like Georg, Truchsess von Waldburg very well to crush the peasants and claim their power back. Rebellions allowed the advancement of weaponry because the political powers wanted to display their dominance over the rebels using excessive force and advanced weapons to show why fighting against that power is futile.

Decline of religious control allowed radical free thinkers to develop weaponry with greater ease. This lack of control by the religious powers was mainly displayed during the renaissance in italy as well as the northern renaissance in england and germany. These periods were a decline of the religious control over the individual, allowing once heritics of the religion, to being outspoken radical thinkers without the fear of being executed. The allowance of these free thinkers created a new working/ thinking force for weaponry, giving rise to weapons which couldn't of been imagined before. The start of religious delcine created weapons such as the cannon (Walter de Milemete, Early Cannon, 1326, to help fight both hereitical forces who oppose the church, as well as helping political forces conqueror lands they once coudn't conqueror. This cannon was influence by radical thinkers both inside the church to help rid of enemies to the church, and political enemies of the lords/ rulers. Radical weapons such as Leonardo da Vinci's tank (Leonardo da Vinci, design for a tank, late 14th to early 15th century, wasn't the first new idea for an advanced weapon, but it was one of the most breakthrough ideas for a weapon/ seige weapon during the time period and helped create weaponry with a influence on his design. Many of these influential ideas helped create weapons during the latter renaissance, and set the stage for even more advancement in weapons. The Wheel-Lock rifle (Johann Michael Maucher, Wheel-Lock Rifle, 1680- 1690, shows a much more personal connection to the weapons and since it was developed in the 17th century (Late protestant reformation), it shows how even during times of insane religious reformation the weapons can keep advancing and the free thinkers can keep moving foward.

Fighting withing a empire allowed invaders to conqueror them, forcing the hands of the politicans to create new weaponry as well as developing from the invading forces. While fighting within a empire creates conflict with the leaders, it will only promote the advancement of weaponry to a specific level, until the conflict becomes resolved. When a invading force decides to invade the territory with substantially better weapons, the politicans become worried and try to advance their weapons to the level of the invaders. During the Greco-Persian wars, the Athenians and the Spartans (enemies to each other before the wars) developed weapons which they could both use to help fight off a common enemy to their land (Unknown, Greco-Persian Warrior, 499 B.C., While the Athenians and the Spartans did work together to fight off a common enemy to their lands, both went back to fighting among themselves after the war was over. This infighting among a greater empire is much like the roman politicans fighting among their city states, which resulted in the creation of the colosseum games and the gladiator fights to help mask the fighting of the politicans to the public, and help create new weapons for the expanding roman empire (Unknown artist, Astynax vs Kalendio, 4th Century AD, This clearly shows how the romans use illusions to help expand their weaponry as well as their technology. These fights helped the roman weaponry advance to their fullest potential, but invaders to the north pushed back the romans using weaponry which was much more fortified. The Vikings Swords (Unknown author, Viking Swords 9th to 10th century AD, display a sedimental value to each weapon as well as a personal connection with the weapon and its weilder. This clearly displays how the vikings and the invading barbarians used much more fortified weapons to conqueror the roman territories with relative ease; it took the romans a great deal of time for them to build weapons like the barbarians, this may of been a result of the political infighting within the empire of the time period. The infighting within a empire can help a great deal with creating weapons, but it can also hinder a empires weaponry due to old greviances between politicans and a invading force.

Weaponry created can display the desperation of the rulers of the empire trying to keep the power centralized to them, this usually ends in fighting within a empire due to certain forces having the more advanced weapons than the other. While weaponry has always shed a bad light on many, the advancements which came from the increasing weaponry have influcened technology to great levels and advanced society to substantial levels.

(History 103)

Western Architecture

Architecture is not something that can be easily explained whether it’s based on style and design alone or a meaning behind the building itself. Buildings today range from simple to intricate in design. However, when talking about the early years of ancient cultures architecture was an imaginative idea that was eventually realistic and expressed in a meaningful way that brings people together. Ancient architectural prominence symbolized Western Societal unity.

Firstly, the Paleolithic and Neolithic man’s realization for communal living constructed new ancient cities. The earliest settlement can be assumed by the ruins of Gobekli Tepe. The small clay and sand structure in a circle formation is a symbol of the ancient people ready to stay in one spot and a single place for the people to go to and worship (The ruins of Göbekli Tepe,10th-8th millennium BCE,öbekli_Tepe). Secondly, Catalhoyuk was a small city in the Neolithic time period that represented communal living and great architecture due the close living quarters throughout the ancient city and how rooms where set under-ground ( Catalhoyuk after the first excavations, 9,000 years ago, Lastly, Stonehenge is the hallmark for all Neolithic change for settlement and architecture. The strange and unique look seems strong and dignified. The rock building appears to me as one place (Stonehenge, about 3000 BC, The Paleolithic and Neolithic yearning for stability and survival brought the people together as one.

Secondly, western societies built religious shrines in honor of their gods and goddesses as a gratitude for their spiritual guidance’s. In the Egyptian culture The Luxor Temple is located in the city of Thebes on the Eastern bank of the Nile River. The Luxor Temple was a place of worship and still is to this day. The gods Amun, Mut and Chons were worshiped here. The temple its self is almost simplistic with columns and accented with statues of the celebrated gods (Artist, Amenhotep III and Rameses II, Luxor date 1400 BC, In addition, the Greek culture constructed the Caryatid Porch of the Erechtheion as part of Pericle's project because he wanted to protect the ancient wooden cult statue of Athena and other statues including Erechtheus. The temple was created in honor of the goddess Athena, and served as a ”centre for the cults of Erechtheus (the mythical king of Athens), his brothers Boutes, Hephaistos, and Poseidon". Even though the statues with their life appearance with similar clothing, each statue has a unique style such as hair designed (The Caryatid Porch of the Erechtheion, date 421-406 BC, Lastly, as time goes on the Roman’s start to believe in only one god Jesus Christ and saints. Monte Cassino was where St. Benedict created his monastery. This monastery is about 81 miles just outside of Rome. The monastery is one of the few remaining territorial abbeys within the Catholic Church. The area was still largely pagan at the time and Benedict’s first act was to smash the sculpture of Apollo and destroy the altar. He then reused the temple, dedicating it to Saint Martin, and built another chapel on the site of the altar dedicated to Saint John the Baptist (Author unknown, Monte Cassino , Date 529 AD, ).The grandiose of these temples are so unique but together have a greater meaning of giving cultures a place  of communal worship. 

Lastly, imperious structures were created to emphasize governing leadership over the common people.For example, the Roman Forum was a complex located at the center of Rome used for public speeches, gatherings, and elections. It was surrounded on all sides by large scale government buildings. For centuries it was the center of Rome’s public life (Roman Forum, date 7th century BC ( Secondly, the arch of Titus is an arch constructed to honor the victories of Titus. Its design has served as a model for many arches constructed from the 16th century onward. The arch features ornate details and an inscription honoring Titus

(Artist, Emperor Domitian (commissioned the structure), Arch of Titus, date AD 82, Lastly in the medieval times, Krak des Chevaliers is a Crusader castle in Syria and one of the most important preserved medieval castles in the world. The  castle was first used by Kurdish forces then later abandoned. Later on Raymond II of Tripoli gave the castle to a crusader group called the "Knights Hospitaller" who kept posession of the castle until it fell in 1271. The Knights Hospitaller used the castle as a "center of administration" as well as a military base for holding a large number of soldiers (Creator Kurds then rebuild by Knights Hospitaller, Krak des Chevaliers, Date 1030 AD, The Roman structures where dominate in form. The marble, concrete architecture defines the essence of strength and great power. The Medieval times were under different power. There was a religious power control. The architecture was becoming more of a simple concrete structure with limited creative styles.

In conclusion, all the ancient architecture styles and develop throughout history shows how the western civilization came together and created cities and remembrances that will never be forgotten. Although each society was different from the Mesopotamia era to the Medieval era the idea of unity was alive.   

(History 104)

From the earliest of times our world has created endless ways of classifying people by common characteristics. Even before materialist properties were feasible, categories like gender, ethnicity, and birthplace were used to distinguish one person from another. As opportunities evolved attention shifted away from personal characteristic to tangible items as way of individualizing common people. Wealth created class separation and it can be seen that higher status came with the desire to advertise one’s wealth to the rest of society.

Men and women exteriorly emphasized detail in their attire to make a statement about their wealth. Extravagant accessories, dresses, and embellishments became popular ways to announce the wearer’s class to outsiders. The ruff emerged in Western Europe and was worn around the neck as presented in Jan Daemen Cool’s “Portrait of a Young Woman with Fan,” (Jan Daemen Cool, “Portrait of a Young Woman with Fan,” (1636), As time went on the ruff evolved making societal statements setting people apart based on their ruff’s magnitude, the greater length and more intricate embroidering equated to greater wealth. The priority for detail continued into the 18th century and became apparent in wigs worn by upper class members, similar to those pictured in Denis Diderot’s encyclopedia (Denis Diderot, “1700’s Wigs,” (1762),´s-wigs/). For males, the longer and more accessorized with bows, and for women, the short, tightly curled wigs allowed all other members of society to acknowledge their status. Women continued their demonstration of wealth through lavish dresses like that pictured in “Robe à l'anglaise,” (Unknown, “Robe à l'anglaise” (1770),,b). The expensive material, complex design, and sheer size reflect the immense cost of owning such a gown.

In contrast to earlier time periods, wealth became visible with what people places inside one’s homes. With lack of definitive status, wealth was exhibited through different practices than before. Purchasing portraits, like that of “Bonaparte Crossing the Alps at Grand-Saint Bernard,” (Jacques-Louis David, “Bonaparte Crossing the Alps at Grand-Saint Bernard” (1801),, was popular among those wealthy enough to show their image by way of art. These portraits became central to one’s home as endless affirmation to their great characteristics. Additional help around the house carried out by maids was also seen as a necessity. John Finnie’s “Maids of All Work,” (John Finnie, “Maids of All Work” (1865),, shows a painting of two female maids frequently present in the homes of the rich. Men and women were hired to work for different jobs to relieve responsibilities of the upper class. The number of maids working in a home symbolized the homeowner’s wealth, abundant maids represented more wealth. Crowding personal belongings throughout the home was another routine of wealthy homeowners, which is evident in “Sunville,” (Unknown, 'Sunville,' (Late 19th century), The bountiful statues, picture frames, rugs, furnishings, books, and plants suggest the home of also having items like fireplaces and furnaces, which were typically common among those of higher income.

Diverging again from previous times, wealth became more publicly manifested. Cars, like the “Allen Car” (Unknown, “Allen Car” (1920), Here), emerged in the 1900’s becoming a huge sensation for members at the top of society. Being driven publicly, cars were a visible reflection of the owner’s ability to purchase such elite items. Exclusive events like those held in Whakarongo Hall, (Unknown, “Whakarongo Hall”
(1920s), Here), were celebrated in the company of other rich people. These parties were soon evident in individually hosted parties in rural areas and although the public generally knew they existed, most of society didn’t hold enough social prominence to attend. The development of neighborhoods also began in the 1900’s. “Streets lined with houses,” (Photographer for the Tesla Studios (possibly Mark Lampe), “Streets lined with houses,” (1900),, is an example of the early suburbs. These housing communities were influenced by the new purchase of cars, which allowed for homes to be farther from the city. Suburbs became communities eminent amongst those wealthy enough to reside there, inevitably becoming a visible divide of different economic levels.

Though ways of revealing class changed with time, all members of society saw the wealth of others around them. Whether it be displayed exteriorly by appearance, represented inside the walls of one’s home, or publicly pronounced, portraying wealth through different properties remained an important practice of those with higher status.


In western society the best interests of the people and the people's agenda are not always the same. One of the challenges of democracies and republics are that they rely on the their people to make good choices for their countries, however by analyzing human nature I make the argument that humans are agenda driven to further their self-interests over others, and will use the government to do so. I like to compare this to the forces that drive supply and demand in economics but instead of producers and consumers there are political viewpoints (Dichotomies). These forces will be contest until they reach a point of equilibrium or common ground, however like in businesses where they have businesses that go under or form monopolies, the peoples agenda can also lead to undesirable outcomes that actually do not work in their best interest.

Political revolutions do not always lead to better societies. Revolutions are only successful if it’s the will of the people, however if my theme is correct then there would be instances where the revolutions were not in the best interest of the people, and there are examples of this. "The execution of Robespierre and his supporters on 28 July", 1794,,_saint_just....jpg, shows the aftermath of the end result of the French revolution, where Robespierre is being executed for his “Reign of Terror”, but during the revolution he was the hope of France as the French people thought, but the Reign of Terror is arguable worse than France under king Louie XVI. The rise of communism inspired many people in Russia to overthrow Nicholas II however this lead to the dictatorship of Joseph Stalin which was for most part not a favorable ruler for the country but his power came from the Russian revolution "Joseph Stalin and Vladimir Lenin in Gorki", 1922, The American Revolution was not exempt from its mistakes after the revolution, for the articles of confederation made the country unstable, at least the Great Britain provided stability. The ten years it took to ratify the constitution were what the colonies were really fighting for during the revolution, which made things worse than before, it was only until the constitution was ratified that the country became stable “Constitution of the United States” (Constitutional Convention, 1787),_page_1.jpg.

People did not always vote for things that were really in their best interest. Democracies have many things voted on and their effects can almost always be predicted but, when people don’t have a deep understanding of politics, they won’t really be able to vote for the best of the country. "Bullet proof" by Carey Orr, 1926,, demonstrates the rise in power of gangs as a result of prohibition, certainly not a favorable outcome but the responsibility lies on the people who voted for it. In the early 20th century woman’s suffrage was heavily pushed by woman, even though as far as societies standards are concerned in the early 20th century woman had little responsibility, they weren’t expected to participate in labor, did not have to have children, and were supported by either their husband or father. They were never taught responsibility and weren’t as educated as men, and that trend did not change as a result of woman’s suffrage, it changed during World War two, so granting suffrage to women before World War two will result in less responsible voters, "The Awakening" Hy Mayer, 1915, About fifty years later “The Equal pay Act of 1963” (Abbie Rowe, June 10 1963)   was signed by John F. Kennedy that prevents only wage discrimination based on sex. This however did not really solve the problem. Businesses were very much like meritocracies where they payed based of productivity and skill, and while the act clearly states that an employer can discriminate wages based off skills, seniority and production, they are very hard to prove in light of an accusation of sex wage discrimination. These protesters of equal pay could not look past their agenda to see that the equal pay act actually hurts working women. You can bet that the unqualified women businesses had to hire and compensated with less pay will be the first to go in layoffs and the last to be hired because there was no sex wage discrimination, only a disproportionate number of skills and skill value between the sexes, at least in 1963. The reason being is because hiring skilled women for less pay means less skilled women taking the job which hurts profit maximization. The real solution would have been to encourage more women to go into better paying fields or to learn more skills for the workforce rather than force to government on employers.  

The influence of people on foreign affairs can yield unintended and devastating results. Political figures in the west have to deal with pressure from their people’s emotions in foreign affairs, and people usually don’t use the same judgement when considering “outsiders” or foreign countries, but sometimes the government yields to their decision and the consequences ensue. After World War one, the "Treaty of Versailles", 1919,, put all the blame and responsibility on Germany which would destroy the nation as a manifestation of the allied nation’s contempt for their losses. Now a poor powerless country forbidden from even having an army, Germany accepts the rule of a national socialist party with very dangerous proposals and ideology that would lead into a second world war. Now if the emotions of the people did not interfere with the policy of the Treaty of Versailles, a more reasonable solution could have been resolved, instead of harsh punishments and reparations that would radicalize the broken nation of Germany. In more recent American history, the Unites States in 2003 had solid majority support for an invasion of Iraq, around 72% in favor, “Opinion on the Iraq War”, Frank Newport, 2003, The Iraq War did not end favorable for the U.S, becoming very costly and destabilized the region to the point where the U.S pulled out prematurely. The signs were there, and many politicians notice them but the peoples pressure (people who know very little about geopolitics) on the politicians led to a majority vote to go to war, and they are still affected by the cost and losses to this, and for the most part would not have voted for the war knowing the subsequent outcome. This outcome could have been predicted and prevented but this is what happens when people make decisions in foreign affairs. Ironically twelve years later, 60% of millennials are in support of a war with ISIS (currently residing in Iraq) but only 15% even consider joining or are enlisted “Millennials Want to Send Troops to Fight ISIS, But Don't Want to Serve”, November 2015, Asma Khalid, I fail to see the difference between this trend and twelve years ago, the same country is involved, national security issues are wildly raised, and people are in support of war even in the event of second destabilization of the region. While this has not led to any consequence yet, I included this because the trend obvious when looking at the two previous examples. Geopolitics will be ignored for the people’s emotional satisfaction, and the consequences of their agenda will be realized, or not, considering the majority of millennials lived through the last war but still support another invasion, we will have to wait and see.

While it is clear that the people’s involvement in western societies can lead to mishaps, ignoring them completely is not the solution. In a republic, their influence should be considered but not absolute and there is a thin line separating constructive consideration and dismissal in the eyes of the people. Revolutions are risky and to be avoided because political leaders have more knowledge on the effect of policies, whereas people almost exclusively vote in their best interest by nature and either are oblivious or dismissive of the direct and indirect actions of their votes, protests, and pressures placed on their leaders.       

(History 104)

Although many men did not advocate for women or seek to achieve gender equality, those who did were a powerful tool in the fight for equal rights.Because of their place in society, men who supported the empowerment of women were able to make the most significant changes in the progression of women’s rights. 

Those men who supported their daughter’s empowerment through education enabled them to make a lasting impact on society and achieve things women had never achieved before. Florence Nightingale was fortunate that her father believed women should be educated. She made many contributions such as organizing and participating in the aid of soldiers in the Crimean war as shown here while tending to the soldiers (Lady with the Lamp, February 24, 1855, file://localhost/,http/ She also made lasting contributions to policies around proper care for patients and is known as the founder of modern nursing. Laura Bassi was an Italian physicist who was encouraged by her family to pursue her education. She spread Newton’s physics and philosophy in Italy and was the first woman to teach at a university. She was the second woman to earn her PhD as evidenced in her graduation photo here (Graduation portrait of Laura Bassi, 1732, (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.). After being encouraged to pursue education by her father, Jane Addams (Jane Addams, Wikipedia, (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.) graduated from Rockford Female Seminary in 1881. She is known as the “mother of social work” and was a leader of women’s suffrage and world peace. She co-founded the first settlement house in the U.S. and encouraged middle-class women to volunteer in an effort to uplift their communities.

Men who worked alongside women, who were committed to women’s rights, and who recognized their value and intellectual capacity, were instrumental in encouraging female contributions to society. Marie Curie (Marie Curie, (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.) worked with her husband Pierre, to do experimentation on radioactivity, which led to their discovery of the element radium. She went on to be the first woman to win the Nobel Prize in Physics. Aaron Augustus Sargent first introduced the language that would later become the 19th amendment granting women suffrage (19th amendment, 1920, (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.). His wife, Ellen Clark Sargent, was a major women’s suffragette and was encouraged to stand up for women’s rights. Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau has been very vocal in calling himself a feminist and has shown commitment to normalizing gender equality. He established the first gender-balanced cabinet in Canada (The Guardian, Jessica Murphy, November 4, 2015, (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.).

Although infrequent, some men have gone out of their way to promote educational reform for women. Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds (Conversations of the Plurality of Worlds, Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle,1701, (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.) was educational literature produced by a man, Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle. It was created with the intent to educate women, paving the way for them to pursue their scientific interests. In 1848, Frederick Denison Maurice founded Queen’s College in London (Queen's College in London, founded 1848,,_London  (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.) the first college to offer educational opportunities for women. Bono, lead singer of the rock band U2, has sought to make an impact on many social causes, including women’s educational rights. In 2016 he was honored by Glamour magazine as their first Man of the Year (Tweet from Glamour Magazine, November 2015, (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.), acknowledging his commitment to advancing gender equality. His campaign, One, launched a Poverty is Sexist Movement which helped to provide education to the world's most underserved women.

 While women have absolutely been instrumental in advocating for their own rights and creating social action for the cause, the men who have sought to establish equal opportunities for women have played the most vital and important role due to their pre-established social status. In their efforts of supporting women’s rights, they have made a large contribution to society as a whole.

(History 104 or 106)

Technological advances change the established structure of a society. Technology has been necessary for societies to advance their techniques in handling a variety of issues, from how people communicate with one another to how diseases are treated. Without technology, societies would not be able to grow and evolve and would most certainly eventually disappear.

One important facet of society is connecting with others; through technological advances in travel and communication, the previous structures of societal interactions were forever changed. One way that people connect with one another is through travel. In 1710, the Darby Iron Furnace (inventor: Abraham Darby, name: Darby Iron Furnace, date: 1710, link: was invented by Abraham Darby. This invention was revolutionary because it allowed Darby to produce huge quantities of ore and was pivotal in the development of steam engines and railways. Though just a preliminary step, this invention gave others the stepping stones needed to create machines that would eventually revolutionize travel. People were once limited to slow and difficult travel by boat or caravan, but steam engines and railways jumpstarted by the Darby Iron Furnace allowed people to travel quickly across greater distances. Another way that people connect is through communication. Alexander Graham Bell patented the first practical telephone (author: Alexander Graham Bell, title: unknown, date: 1876, link:, which lead to a huge change in the way that people communicated with one another. By using a telephone, people could have instantaneous interaction and hear genuine emotion from the other person. This was vastly different from the telegrams and letters that had been used prior. Communication has gone even further with the invention of computers and the Internet. Sir Tim Berners-Lee created the first ever web browser to allow people to access the World Wide Web (creator: Sir Tim Berners-Lee, title: WorldWideWeb (photo from CERN), date: December 1990, link: The first ever web browser was originally called WorldWideWeb (later changed to Nexus so it wouldn’t be confused with the actual World Wide Web at the time). This browser was the only one available to use in the world. The first web address was and was devoted to information about the World Wide Web project. Although this technology was limited at the time, it has grown exponentially and continues to grow every day. The ability for people to access the Web and learn and connect with other people around the world shows how important this piece of technology is to the development of society.

Another focal aspect of society is health and medicine; technological advances transformed society by developing new ways to care for its weak, ill, and dying. During the Black Death, it was decreed by the Pope that bodies of plague victims be thoroughly dissected and properly autopsied. Although dissection was previously explicitly forbidden by the Catholic Church, Pope Clement VI reasoned that any scientific discoveries made through dissection were worth it if it saved lives. Because of this decree, multiple physicians could investigate how disease and the human body interact. New, more accurate textbooks were released and dissection became a central part of medicine from that point forward (artist: Mondino de Luzzi, title: “Lesson in Anatomy” originally published in Anatomia corporis humani, date: 1493, link: An important medical development that has modernized the way disease is treated is the invention of vaccines. Through experiments by Dr. Edward Jenner, a cowpox inoculation was developed that protected previously vulnerable people from contracting smallpox. Dr. Jenner would use a needle dipped in the pus from a cowpox boil and rub that fluid into open cuts (artist: E. Board, title: unknown, date: 1796, People inoculated with the cowpox vaccine would get a mild case of cowpox, but be forever protected from contracting smallpox, a much more dangerous disease. By using this vaccine knowledge, other members of society were able to develop new and improved ways of protecting people from other diseases. One scientific technological advance that continues to be fervently argued about even to this day is the birth of Dolly the sheep (creator: Roslin Institute, name: Dolly the sheep, date: July 5, 1996, link: Created at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, Scotland, Dolly the sheep was the first mammal to be successfully cloned from an adult cell (specifically a mammary gland cell). All previous cloning had been from embryo cells. Dolly was the exact genetic duplicate of the ewe who donated the udder cell. This discovery forever changed science as it was known before and has lead to countless discussions on the legal and ethical implications of cloning. Supporters promote the idea of cloning cells to cure diseases and “create” organs for people in need, while detractors wonder about where the science will take our society in terms of uncertain results, overpopulation, and going against the laws of nature.

Warfare and weaponry are vital to the survival of a society; by developing this technology, the way humans fight with one another has been permanently changed. One way that technology affected weaponry was through the development of railway guns. Although these artillery pieces were initially made in the 1850s, railway guns were hugely important during World War I (photographer: Jules Gervais-Courtellemont, title: unknown, date: 1917, link: These guns were able to shoot targets accurately from huge distances. This allowed for a fiercer battle and more damage to the enemy, which was in stark contrast to battles from the past that were hand-to-hand combat. Warfare reached a point of no return with the development of the Manhattan Project and the subsequent fallout from that. Developed in 1942 and lasting until 1946, the program was a research and development program set up by the United States. This program was in direct response to fears of Nazi Germany developing an extremely powerful weapon. The “Trinity” nuclear test site in New Mexico was the site for hundreds of nuclear explosion tests (photographer: Jack W. Aeby, title: unknown, date: 1945, link: and was where scientists were able to see the full magnitude of the terrifying and awe-inspiring weapon they were working with. Soon after these tests, Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan were bombed, leading to the end of World War II. Warfare and weaponry were forever changed because society was not (and is still not) entirely certain of the Pandora’s box they had opened. Another way that technology has evolved with regards to warfare and weaponry is through the introduction of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), more commonly referred to as drones. The Tadiran Mastiff is widely considered to be the first version of an unmanned surveillance drone (inventor: Tadiran Electronic Industries, title: Tadiran Mastiff, date first flown: 1973, link: This invention was the result of commanders in the 1973 Yom Kippur War wanting to be able to see “over the hill”. Israeli Defense Forces developed this surveillance UAV to give the field commanders live and high-resolution video without risking the lives of human beings. Since this initial introduction to unmanned aircraft and weaponry, the technology has continued to develop into precise killing machines that don’t risk the lives of any soldiers. However, this has also forever changed the way wars are fought because stealth is now a major factor. Many ethical and moral arguments have also been presented because of this technology, including arguments concerning the emotional detachment of “remote control killings” and the very real risk of killing the wrong target (including civilians). Surveillance drones also have created many ethical arguments about privacy. Through all of these different technological warfare advancements, the way humans battle each other will never be the same as it once was.

Technological advances have molded the different aspects of society and forever changed the structures that were previously in place. Technology has changed the way people communicate, travel, treat illnesses, and fight. By changing the way people view the world, technology has advanced society from what it knew before, for better or for worse.

(History 106)

The importance of efficiency is the ultimate driving force for the continual evolution of advancement in technological developments.  Technology itself can be simple, or highly advanced type of human creation and invention.  Regardless of the extrinsic and intrinsic needs of a society, one of the main elements behind every advancement of technological development has been due to efficiency.  Specifically, advancing technology to efficiently complete a task or goal.   

The Industrial Revolution marked an era that saw heavy reliance on steam power-driven machines, and specialized textile machinery that effectively eliminated long, tedious hours of manual labor.  The Industrial Revolution period was in a sense more of an evolution from its earlier predecessors – it evolved from the water powered technology to steam.  As depicted in this image of the Thomas Savery’s steam pump (artist: Thomas Savery, title: Image of Savery’s Steam Pump, date: original image printed in 1702, reprinted in 1827, link: (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.), it became an effective technology that would significantly reduce the man hour and hand labor of pumping water out of the coal mines. The conversion to steam technology also effectively accelerated the transportation process and industry.  A primary example of this is the steam powered creation of the Rocket Locomotive (artist: photographer unknown, title: Rocket Locomotive, date: 1829, link: (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.).  Prior to the Industrial Revolution, the main means of transportation of variety type of goods were powered by humans or animals.  However, with the introduction of the Rocket Locomotive, transportation of heavy goods, materials, and items could now be easily transported to the desired destination in significantly less time and ease.  Observation of the Industrial Revolution would not be complete without mentioning the dramatic increase of clothing production due to The Elias Howe Sewing Machine (creator: Elias Howe, Jr., title: Elias Howe Sewing Machine (patent model), date: 1845, link: (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.). In ancient times, and even to the Middle Ages, clothes were primarily made by hand sewing which took great effort to perform, and consumed a significant amount of time.  The evolution from hand-made or tailor made clothing to the invention of the sewing machine made it possible to efficiently mass produce clothes.

World War II and Cold War became the era of marrying science and technology evolution in order to provide an effective method in winning wars and conflicts.  One of the most significant way to win World War II effectively was to have a highly advanced equipment that can reveal the enemy’s plan or movement. The British Radar during World War II, (creator: Robert Watson-Watt, title: British Radar during WWII, date: 1935, link: (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.), was a technological device that involved the scientific application of radio waves.  These radio waves were sent out by these radar, which serve an importance of detecting and locating incoming enemy airplanes.  Additionally, it is noteworthy to see the evolution of radar’s effectiveness from its precursor sonar technology.  Another type of crucial technology that was instrumental in ensuring a winning outcome for World War II was the Colossus Computer, (creator: Tommy Flowers, title: Colossus Computer, date: 1943-1945, link: (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.) as shown in this picture here, was such a device that had one crucial main function.  Its sole purpose was to accelerate the decoding and deciphering messages that were being sent between Hitler and his top commanders.  The Colossus became the world’s first modern computer that involved groups of computer programmers, engineers, and mathematicians in order for this machine to effectively decode enemy messages thereby aiding in reducing the length of the war, and potentially saving many lives.  Unfortunately, wars can bring out the most horrifying and destructive technology that can effectively overwhelm the opposition by brute force.  The atomic bomb known as the Fat Man (Creators: Robert Oppenheimer and the Manhattan Project Scientists, title: Fat Man, date: 1945, link: (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.) was so devastating that it destroyed half of the city Nagasaki in Japan.  It also quickly forced Japan to surrender, and effectively won the war for the United States.  In addition, the creation of this atom bomb was a primary example of combining some of the highest level of science, math, and engineering application that led to the development of a military weapon that could effectively overpower enemies in a short amount of time.

The contemporary times reflects an age of the need for efficient, and instant access of information and entertainment.  When it comes to the contemporary times, society have come to a dependence on desiring efficient and instant access to entertainment, especially in the music category.  The music technology invention famously known as the iPod (creator: Apple Computer, Inc., title: iPod (4th generation, date: 2004, link: (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.), would forever change the way we listen to music.  The ingenuity of this musical device enable the ability to efficiently store thousands of songs, customize personal playlists, and its portability allowed the easiness of being carried anywhere.  The iPod eliminated the need for carrying around hundreds of CDs, or any heavy, bulky music devices in order for one to enjoy their favorite songs.  However, the biggest game changer could be said of smartphones, especially with the introduction of the iPhone in 2007 (creator: Steve Jobs, title: iPhone, date: January 9, 2007, link: (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.).  The iPhone is a primary example of the modern day definition of technology that brings efficient daily life multi-tasking, and instant access to millions of different type of information at the disposal of one’s fingertips.  This was the device that could do it all from listening to playlists of songs to paying bills online, making phone calls, or accessing information from the internet.  Lastly, it would be amiss not to mention one of the technology that may have the greatest impact to modern day society, and that is the social media applications.  Without the invention of the social media apps, many of us would probably not be using our smartphones.  The social media application known as Instagram (creator: Kevin Systrom, title: Instagram, date: 2010, link: (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.), has become more than media platform just used for sharing photos and videos with the world.  It has become a technological application that can be used to efficiently find relevant and important information for certain individuals, able to connect with anyone around the world in an instant, and most impressive is that it can enable any individual to generate their own profitable private business.  Additionally, it is shocking to discover the amount of hours people spend each day on Instagram because of its ease to access any information around the world, and social entertainment.

Technological inventors will continue to enhance, develop, and improve technology due to society’s need for efficiency.  Thus, the evolution of the advancement in technology will only continue to grow more efficient because of society’s impatient demands to make their day to day lives easier, and more importantly time is of essence.


(History 111)

Freedom is deeply embedded in American culture, persistently being the focal point of conflict. The United States of America is founded upon the idea of freedom and our national anthem boasts of “the land of the free and the home of the brave”. Americans have died to protect our right to freedom.

From the start, American colonists pursued liberty and freedom from Great Britain in the Revolutionary War, claiming it was man’s natural right to be free. Initially colonists were loyal to their mother country, Great Britain, but as the taxes were imposed on them to support a country that was across the ocean just didn’t seem right. Starting with the Navigation Acts, the Sugar Act, and the Stamp Act, colonists’ frustration was mounting and by the time the Tea Act was imposed in 1773, there was a predilection for rebellion murmuring its way through the colonies, especially in Boston. In December of 1773, the ships carrying tea from the East India Company, whom Parliament had granted a monopoly on the tea imported into America, docked at Boston Harbor. This sparked outrage in the colonists and, on December 16th, 1773, a group led by Samuel Adams boarded the ships and proceeded to dump all 342 chests of tea into the water. This “Boston Tea Party” was celebrated by the colonists (The Library of Congress, The Boston Gazette, 1773), but enraged Parliament, who then imposed the Intolerable Acts. This is just breeds more animosity between the colonists and Great Britain and shoves the two into the American Revolutionary War. Living in Philadelphia during this time, Thomas Paine was a colonist who wrote the pamphlet, Common Sense (Thomas Paine Historical Association, 1776), which connected to the common farmers and intellectuals, alike, and spoke of the colonies breaking away from the tyrant king that controlled them from across the sea. Thomas Paine inspired a wave of patriotism for the colonists and truly spread the idea of independence in a positive way, instead of the tentative and out of reach idea it was before the pamphlet was published. He spoke of liberating themselves from British rule because all men were created equal and deserved the freedom to govern their own in democracy. Thomas Paine’s pamphlet fueled the fire for the Revolutionary War against Great Britain. Thomas Jefferson soon after wrote the Declaration of Independence (Wikipedia, 1776), which explained the grievances towards the King and that the colonists had the natural right of revolution, declaring themselves independent from the British rule. This was the document that cemented America’s freedom from a monarchy and the birth of the thirteen sovereign states and the “land of the free”.

The Civil War was a fight for freedom on either side: the Union fought to emancipate slaves from the South and the Confederates fought to protect their way of living in southern society, which included slavery. Abraham Lincoln was the elected President of the U.S. when the civil war broke out. Lincoln’s stance on slavery was to abolish it and after he was elected, many Southern states seceded from the U.S. in rebellion. Lincoln wasn’t as speedy on abolishing slavery as many of his voters would’ve liked, however, and was voiced by Horace Greeley and published in the New York Tribune in an open letter to the President (CivilWareEF, 1862), basically calling him out and persuading him to free the slaves as a weapon against the rebellion. Little did Horace and the public know that Lincoln had already written the first draft of the Emancipation Proclamation and was trying to go about freeing the slaves gracefully and to try and not prompt anymore States to secede. President Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation (The Shout Heard Round the World, 1862) as a warning to those states that seceded and gave hope to the slaves within those states. The Emancipation Proclamation inspired slaves to fight for their freedom and rebel again their masters, even giving them the opportunity to fight with the Union against the South if they could escape, offering them refuge.On the other side, many Southerners viewed Lincoln’s election as a threat to their ways of living and southern society itself. Slavery was the very foundation of business in the South, with slaves working on cotton and tobacco farms. Economically, without slaves, the South would (and did) suffer. As the Confederates saw it, the Union essentially had seized, without compensation, roughly 3.5 billion dollars (over $70 billion dollars in today’s money) in what was a legal form of property.  In rebellion against the Union, starting with South Carolina, thirteen southern states seceded from the U.S. (Wikimedia, 1860), even though the U.S. government never recognized the secessions and considered it illegal and illegitimate. The newly named Confederate States of America, however, fully grasped their right to freedom and in 1861 they created their own government with their own constitution, separate from the U.S. 

America and her fight for freedom has extended internationally, essentially becoming the policemen of the world, and has drawn both support and opposition from its citizens. In the beginning of WWII, America tried to remain neutral, while providing aid to the Allies against the Nazis. Japan brought America into the war when they bombed Pearl Harbor in December of 1941 and Americans were shocked to read the newspapers that reported this tragic event, but most supported President Roosevelt’s declaration of war (Honolulu Star Bulletin, 1941). America then joined the Allies in a fight for freedom against the oppression of the Axis powers and the dictatorship of Hitler and the Empire of Japan. After WWII, America went to war in Vietnam in 1964, aiding the Southern Vietnamese government against the communist North Vietnamese government and the Viet Cong. As this political cartoon by Bill Mauldin portrays (Chicago Sun Times, 1964), the US was essentially the backbone of the war for South Vietnam, supplying the firepower to fight the war. Many Americans were supportive of the war and helping the poor Southern Vietnamese people escape from the oppressive grasp of the communist North Vietnamese, but those views soon changed after the war was televised and showed the many atrocities against civilians committed by both sides. The war soon lost focus and eventually the U.S. pulled out of Vietnam with no clear “winner” on either side. In the 1990’s, America again found itself drawn into a conflict with Iraq when it’s dictator, Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait over oil. After the invasion in 1990, the American government decided to intervene and in January 1991, started what is known as the Gulf War with Operation Desert Storm. Victory was swift and by February 1991, President Bush Sr. ordered a ceasefire, upon the notion that Hussein would leave Kuwait alone and he would do away with any weapons of mass destruction that he possessed. Hussein remained in power and hostilities remained, leading President George Bush to sign the Iraq Liberation Act (Congress, 1998), basically stating that the U.S. would support a transition to a democratic government in Iraq. After the 9/11 Terrorist Attacks on the WTC in New York City, George Bush, in 2003, issued an ultimatum to Hussein to take his sons and leave Iraq or there would be war. Hussein refused, thus starting another Gulf War (also known as the Iraqi War or Operation Iraqi Freedom). Hussein was found and later executed.

A popular saying in America, especially among military families, is “freedom doesn’t come free”. With the world’s most powerful military force and vibrant economy, American has taken a stance as a policeman of sorts, fighting with and for those that rebel against suppressive forces. Freedom in America has always been seen as man’s inalienable right and the foundation on which this country was born. Wars were fought, and patriotic men died, to protect those freedoms. 

Unfortunately, it seems that for drastic and life-changing legislation to be passed, tragedies must reoccur to draw the general public’s attention to issues that need reformed. Great tragedies that cause significant injury and fatality lead to much needed reforms by galvanizing public support for new legislation.  

Unsafe working conditions lead to injury and death in the workplace, which contributes to the push for law reform. In 1904, after the number of child workers in the United States had reached 1.5 million, the National Child Labor Committee was formed. Conditions for working children were awful, including being underpaid and overworked, as well as being given dangerous jobs that adults couldn’t or wouldn’t do. Some children began working as early as 7. The NCLC immediately began working to investigate the extent of the atrocious conditions of the children in the workplace and then push for new legislation to reform these issues. (Addie, Lewis Hine, February 1910, This photo shows a young worker girl of about 12; one can notice her raggled and dirty appearance and that she looks tired and hungry. The NCLC still exists today and continues to support regulation of child labor, which is now illegal in the United states.In 1907, a coal-mine explosion in Monongah, West Virginia killed over three hundred men, making it one of the country's largest explosions in history. Mining had been and remains a dangerous profession, with a high risk of cave ins and most workers getting ill and dying from the toxins breathed in inside the mines. Mines were not only likely to collapse but also to explode if gases were ignited. Public demand for the government to take more control of regulating the condition of the mines resulted in the United States Bureau of Mines. (Mine No.6 Va Explosion, The Spokane Press, 13 December 1907, This is a picture from a newspaper showing the entrance to the mine and one can see people running in and out of the chaos. In 1911, a fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory in New York caused the deaths of almost 150 people, mostly young, immigrant women, because of lack of safety measures. Factories at the time were not regulated in any way in regards to things like fire exits and extinguishers, not to mention some workers were locked into the factories during their shift. Because of this, when the fire occurred, it left people with no option other than jumping out windows to their death.This tragic event directly led to the formation of the Factory Investigating Commission by the New York State legislature. (Triangle Fire, March 25, 1911, This photo shows the height of the building and the size of the flames, emphasizing the tragic suffering and death the victims so uselessly endured. The FIC investigated the safety of workplaces in New York, which led to thirty-eight pieces of reformative legislation regarding labor and safety there and quite possibly led the way for labor reform all over the country.

War leads to significant international and global changes as people and nations come together to try and prevent future tragedies. The Emancipation Proclamation was an indirect consequence of the Civil War. It was issued on January 1, 1863 and officially declared all slaves in America free. Although the war was fought over a lot more than slavery, enough people did feel strongly enough against the expansion of slavery, a moral wrong, that the country went to war over it. Slaves did gain their freedom in the end, even though they wouldn’t have full equality for another 100 years. (First Reading of the Emancipation Proclamation, Francis Bicknell Carpenter, 1864, This photo shows President Lincoln during the first reading of the proclamation. In 1920, the League of Nations, brainchild of Woodrow Wilson, was formed as a direct response to World War I.The pure amount of devastation caused by WWI led President Wilson to the idea of a global committee of the nations that would, in theory, help prevent such world wide destruction and war from occurring again. The idea looked good on paper, but when Congress didn’t approve the United States to enter into the League, it lost most of its ability to police the world without one of the major superpowers part of it. (Leonard Raven-Hill, 1919, The Gap in the Bridge, This political cartoon demonstrates the metaphorical structural weakness the League of Nations had without the United States as a member.  In 1945 after WWII, the United Nations was formed to replace the League of Nations, which had not been functioning effectively without the support of the U.S. (Chilie signs UN Charter, June 26, 1945, UN photo by Yould, This picture shows the delegation from Chile signing the charter at the first meeting of the United Nations. The 51 orignal countries that formed the UN did so in order to usher in a new era of international cooperation to prevent future world wars. The UN continues today and has joined countries together many times in protecting human rights and peace on earth.

Decades of violence and discrimination towards a group of people eventually generates enough public outcry to improve laws. In 1964, President Johnson signed into law the Civil Rights Act of 1964 which outlawed discrimination at the polls. (President Johnson speaks to a television camera at the signing of the Civil Rights Act, 1964, O.J. Rapp, This photo shows the President adressing the public when he signed the bill into law. One event in particular, the lynching of three civil rights workers by the KKK in Mississippi, spurred large amounts of public support for this law, but its passage can generally be attributed to over fifty years of violence and discrimination against blacks and those who spoke out repeatedly against it. In 1968, the Indian Civil Rights Act was established and finally gave most of the rights guaranteed to other citizens under the Bill of Rights, to Native Americans. This came after over two centuries of war and bloodshed between the Indians and Americans, as well as destruction of their environment, the sometimes siezure of lands, and forced relocation to reservations. Since the first Europeans set foot on American soil, thousands upon thousands of lives have been lost in barbaric ways such as scalping. Basically, the Native Americans were told to stay on the reservations and they could govern themselves without U.S. interference but this also meant that they were subject to the will of the United States and had no rights to fight back with. The Indian Civil Rights Act finally changed this by giving Native Americans rights to protect them as citizens. (The Trail of Tears, Max D. Stanly, 1995, This is representation of the tragedy known as the Trail of Tears, the forced relocation of over 16,000 Native Americans, 6000 of whom died along the journey. This is just one example of the atrocities these people endured.  In 2015, the Supreme Court finally declared the national ban on gay marriage unconstitutional, after years of discrimination in workplaces, schools, and legal matters as well as the repeated beating, raping, and killing of LGBT people in our country. (This came after over ten years of a movement with state after state allowing gay marriage until finally the landmark ruling legalized it nationwide.) ( White House lit for gay pride, June 26, 2015, Michael S. Williamson, The Washington Post, This photo shows the White House lit up with the symbolic colors of the LGBT movement, the rainbow.

Every one of these moments in history, though horrible and tragic, brought people together and changed the world in some small way each time. Although it doesn’t remove the pain of the loss these events incurred nor does it explain why it seems we as a species have to be brought to the edge to be able to reel ourselves back into the realm of human decency, the reforms made after these tragedies make it so lives were not lost in vain.

(History 111)

Women's public participation increases during times of economic instability. One way we can remember the way in which women have gone through economic trouble, is by photographs. As I display and explain how women’s participation increased during these times, I want to also include links of photographs to support my argument with the different eras and how women have played a big part in the making of our history. 

The late 1800’s to early 1900’s was a time of reconstruction, financial instability, and the slow rise of women's independence.
The first photo I want to take a look at is the one by Richard K. Fox titled Annie Oakley. This photo was from 1899. As a pioneer of her time, Annie Oakley knew the dangers of war and was not going to rely on anyone else to protect her. This photo shows the safety in which she valued herself in during this era of reconstruction. (era. Another photo we can look at of woman being more involved is this picture of Margaret Sanger from 1916, from New York (Photographer unknown). This photo displays a woman at a birth control clinic signing the new law as it displays the power of gender roles becoming more equal and to show how women start to take a stand for their bodies. By them doing this, it gave women hope, economic safety, and a progress of becoming more involved in the nation. ( The title of this next photo is "OPA Egg Price Controls" dated back from January 19, 1945. During the war, people needed to ration and be wise with their food. This is significant because women were the main care givers to their family and often played the “mother” role. During this time women went shopping and rationed for food because of the instability of economics. These women had to go to the store and provide for their family meanwhile some women played the male role and were sent into war. This was the beginning in which we see women being displayed more in this era. ( unknown)).

To continue to look at the participation women had in the early 1900’s, I want to also mention their participation in the later 1900’s when we start to see more gender equality, and the strength ladies had during the time of war. Women for a long time did not have a say or place due to the lack of gender equality, but in this era, we soon start to see them being treated a little more fairly. Women were considered an object for men during this time, but later in the 1900’s we see them become more independent and them being viewed a little more respectfully. The title of this next source is an ad called, Roller Skate Advertisement(1959)(Author unknown). ( This ad is directed towards young teenage girls with the intent to encourage them to participate in a new leisure activity introduced in 1956. This is significant because it shows the participation even younger girls had during this time to prove their worth and independence. As an additional note, the fashion and quote at the top, "for fun and figure," attracted teens. This allowed girls to view themselves as valuable unlike they could before. During this era, women had a hard time finding their worth in a world filled with men and their prideful masculinity. The next photo dated back from November 16,1969, ( unknown), we see a lady holding a sign protesting against war regardless of being in the minority and the men surrounded around her. This image is significant because most women did not feel powerful enough in the early 1900’s but as time progressed we see it shift in the late 1960’s. The last photo I want to show in this era is a girl screaming while sitting next to a body of a person killed in the Kent State shootings in May 1970. ( The author,  John Mangels, explains the suffering women went through, and the times of safety being nonexistent for many during this time. 

In the later 1900’s to the beginning of the early 2000’s, women’s participation increased dramatically in becoming more involved in economic safety and in the contemporary lifestyle. In 1979, a photo was taken of a women driving in Los Angeles wearing a mask to cover her face from the airborne particles of the smog alert on June 29, 1979. This girlwas  named Sara Segal-Alsberg, and was the face of this advertisment and photograph. This represents how the air pollution was terrible, uncontrollable, and how people had to wear a mask because of it. You see the historical aspect of a girl being the one driving the car and the one being affected by the unsafe environment. ( Another photo to take a look at is this one dated back from 1991 called Troops walk down the Canyon Of Heroes, on Broadway, Manhattan, as part of their welcome home parade.( This photo is awesome because if you look closely, one can notice the soldier that is waving, is a woman. Through the unsafety, we see it have an affect as the soldiers return home from the Gulf War. This last photo is from 2001 and displays a woman being involved in the aftermath of 9/11. The title of this photo is called The Patriotic Act, and it is from the author Farhana Khera ( After the attack took place in New York, congress passed the patriot act, which allowed the government to have access to the lives of Americans. To protest against this, women stood against this and gave their opinions with the first amendment in mind which is the freedom of speech. This impacted many women and has had a big affect in this contemporary era we currently live in now. 

To conclude this paper, we see that without photos we would not be able to visualize what hardships  women had and were apart of during hard and growing economic times. With these photos I added and mentioned, it gives us a broader understanding and visual element on what took place and happened during these times and to see the growth of how women becoming more involved and important in our country.

(History 111)

  Musical styles have reflected the constraints of social structure. Music is an important and omnipresent activity that mirrors an array of emotional responses. It can be used for many purposes such as; enjoyment, aesthetic appreciation, mood management and enhancement, distraction, and as a badge of identity. It has the ability to enhance particular cognitive networks in different ways according to the way that it is organized. Historically music has been used for social bonding, motivation, oral knowledge, ritual, and religion. Therefore, when applied with a socio-based observation one will find that music has reflected a perpetual movement that has consistently contributed to social representations of how individuals make sense of the world around them. I would like to emphasize some of the dynamics and tensions that have occurred within the social perimeter that has historically influenced Americans. Music has been used as a source of cohesive motivation to deliver messages in such a way that it has instrumentalized social representations semiotically. The patterns can be traced to the attachment of social connotations such as culture and society. Music has also been used as a form of mediation in efforts to diffuse political and economic constraints in a diversified form of societal reflection.

  Music of the 1920s and 1930s reflected the changes in the economy. The 1920s marked a period of optimism and was very much an upbeat time for people. The first world war had just ended in 1918 and the economy grew prosperous. This time period is often referred to as the second industrial revolution due to the new technologies and increased business opportunities, therefore contributing to the inclination of wages. People were finally able to catch up and enjoy the leisure of past time activities, literature, film, and most significantly music. In 1924, Louis Armstong became a notable soloist, performing with the Fletcher Hendersen dance band. His humble beginnings originated in his hometown New Orleans. He mastered the styles of New Orleans jazz known for it’s polyphonic, theme variation, and simultaneous collective improvisation. Armstrong’s style was most notably melodious and extempore in nature and took the lead creating a whole new phase of jazz. This poster is an example of an advertisement that featured in the Afro-American newspaper of Baltimore, Maryland (The Okeh Phonograph Corportation, “The King of Trumpet Players, April 13, 1929, ” One signifigant event that may have propelled jazz on a larger scale was the Prohibition that took place from 1920 to 1933. The Prohibition banned all sales of alcoholic beverages and therefore galvanized the rapid increase of unrestrained underground criminal activity such as the illicit speakeasies. Speakeasies became the most busy venues that hosted the “Jazz Age” type of atmosphere. The fast paced change in culture gave the 1920s, infamously named “The Roaring 20s. Moreover, the older generation or those of a more conservative nature perceived the cultural changes as Idiosyncratic and hendonist. This photo is of Duke Ellington where much of his time was spent performing at speakeasies in his early days (Steven Lasker, ”The Washingtonians”, 1925, The popularity of Jazz spread into the 1930s with the introduction of the radio. Therefore making the different styles of Jazz easily accessible to Americans without physically visiting a jazz club, which lead onwards to the progression of big band dance music. Inna Ray Hutton was “the blonde bombshell of Rhythm” who had the full package; the voice, dance moves, looks, and smarts (Billboard Magazine, “Queen of Hearts and Rhythm”, November 28, 1936, She performed in an all-girl Jazz band called the “Melodears” that featured a feminine rhythm and she also appeared on screen in “The Big Broadcast of 1936.” She made a significant impact that would pave the way for a wave of female bands who would become more evident in the music culture of the 1940s.

  Musical styles during the 40s were influenced by World War II. Music during World War II had an advantageous effect on the American home front and troops overseas. The leading genres of this time period consisted of mainly jazz, swing, and big band. Due to the widespread popularity of the radio, different mediums of music could be delivered all over the world. In 1941, 96.2 percent of American households owned a radio. With this in mind, the distribution of music impacted the society in a myriad of ways. It acted as a unifying and patriotic hinge via esprit de corps, which in turn increased the morale of the troops overseas. At the home front the wartime draft lead to a major decline of musicians available because the music industry was primarily dominated by male musicians. Due to the fact that women now commanded the once male-dominated industries, it would only make sense that they would also do so within the music industry. In the 40s there were more than one hundred all girl based bands. The Andrew Sisters are a great example of all girl, big band, swing, boogie-woogie dance group that delivered a sense of security in a war-torn country. They were the face of upbeat war campaigns, also known as the “darlings” of WWII. They brought a sense of hope and joy to people at such terrible times. Their commitment to America was evident with their association to the USO, whom they toured with extensively. This bus pass sold in 1942 further illustrates the significant role that The Andrew Sisters played in the media (St. Louis Public Service Co., The Andrews Sisters Bus Pass Advertisement, Week of November 15-21, 1942, On that note, I would like to take a moment to acknowledge Bing Crosby’s presence during the WWII era largely due to the fact that The Andrew Sisters and Crosby frequently collaborated. One of their top chart songs was called “The Freedom Train,” originally written by Irving Berlin. Not to mention that Crosby was the only recording artist during the 40s to sell more records than The Andrew Sisters. He rose to stardom with his song “White Christmas” that topped the “Your Hit Parade” charts during October 1942. The song had a melancholy nostalgic ambience that reminded listeners of the holidays at home with their families. The song resonated with its listeners at home and overseas. The Armed Forces Network reported that, “White Christmas” became one of the most highly requested songs during the holiday season of 1942 (Bing Crosby, Army V-Disc No.441, Christmas Music, 1945, Torch songs also became very popular. Most Torch songs were bleak songs built around the devastation of emotional loss. This sentiment was a common theme for many during the WWII era because the war drafts sent men overseas. Therefore many relationships nationwide were abruptly ended with little time for goodbyes. There were those that longed for each other on both the home front and overseas. There were also those who would never again be able to see their sweetheart return home. This is a picture of Sarah Vaughan, who was a famous torch singer known for her beautiful voice (Gottlieb, William P.,Portrait of Sarah Vaughan, Café Society (Downtown), New York, N.Y. ,Sept. 1946,

  The major social movements are fluidly connected through musical expressionism. In the 50’s people were finally recovering from the war, people were finally able to give their children things that they never had. Pop culture started to evolve and very much revolved around the rebellion of the stereotypes by which the people felt had been constrained by. Elvis Presley the “King of Rock and Roll” was disliked by many adults because of how open he was to his sexuality. It was so different from the old ways of conformity, this was a big deal. The generation gap had widened and so had the margin of change. This is a poster of a film that Elvis Presley stared in, due his popularity it rose to the third ranking place in the variety box office charts (Elvis Presley promoting the film Jailhouse Rock,Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Inc.,1957, The movement of change continued onward into the 1960s and at this point the generational gap had expanded leaving less space for the traditionalist forms of authority. Different elements began being introduced into the American music scene such as British Pop Rock. The counterculture of the 1960s was thwarted into locomotion as the perceived ideals changed by the widespread social tensions. The African American Civil Rights Movement during this time was even more evident than ever before and the Vietnam War created a new wave of liberation. The lyrics in the song Revolution, written by the Beatles in 1968 is a pinnacle example of the socio-cultural perspectives during the Vietnam War period (Maclen Music, Inc., New York, Revolution-Sheet Music, 1968, There were many other oppressing factors that lead to the disruptions of the overall American civility. Some of the on going civil injustices regarding the topics of human sexuality and women’s rights also added other agitating elements to the list. The interpretations of the American dream that were once prided by Americans began to leave a bitter taste in the mouths of many. New subcultures began to emerge; bohemianism, Hippism, and other new alternative lifestyles. These new groups celebrated and embraced change with their entire being. They would do anything for the sake of peace and love. The 70’s broadened the movement with a mixture of World War II veterans, baby boomers, men, women, and people of different ethnic backgrounds. They felt they had dealt with enough. The energy and spirit of people in the 70s, civil rights, and activism spoke in multitudes of different ways and one of them was through music. John Lennon, who became a legend, was a leader of sorts who shaped the views of people through his music and activism. “Imagine," a song written by Lennon in 1971 spoke of a world where peace existed and where there were no boundaries or constraints of skin color or religion. The only language that existed in this world was love. The message he shared though his lyrics and music spoke in a way that almost everyone could relate to and that was change (Billboard advertisement for “Imagine”, John Lennon, 

  Music is a powerful medium and has always been intertwined with society. The reason why it is so powerful is because it facilitates connection through communication that goes beyond words. Further substantiating that American music has been shaped by our society and mirrors the various eras in history. Music in the United States has demonstrated a consistent pattern based on the idea that it reflects cultural changes in our economy. The effect that World War I and II had on the U.S. economy was tremendous and played a large role in propelling the major social movements that occurred in the greater portion of the 20th century. The very primal instinct of human kind is not singular in nature, therefore significant changes on a large societal based scale will set a stage for expressionism. Expressionism is a form of art, and music is the most basic form of art that has been a part of the history of mankind since the dawn of time. It is an inevitable and perpetual theme in American history, and will remain that way, so long as there is a United States by which it can continue it’s evolutional journey.

(History 105

Throughout history new techniques in architecture have been experimented with, many of which were found to be very useful. Not only does the building of new dwellings demand money but it also demands manpower. Only recently have gas-powered machines taken over the heavy lifting in the past different tools and techniques were used to get similar results. The wealth of populated areas is portrayed through the uses of new architectural designs. 

Tombsand memorials are seen around the world showing the dedications of rulers andthe fearlessness of soldiers that have since passed away, other memorials arededicated towards tracking astronomical patterns. The Kennet Long Barrow Tomb [1a] is a very intricate design with 3 chambers, being North, South, and East Chambers. The construction began about 3600BC and it is estimated that 15,700 man-hours were expended to completion. There were approximately 46 burials ranging from gender and age.  Previously people were buried in mass tombs with hundreds of people piled on top of each other. Being buried in a single grave or a tomb would have taken a long time to complete and in early history only powerful and wealthy people would have been buried in them. Stonehenge [1b] was built between 3000BC and 2500BC. It had to be built in three stages due to the stones having to be transported over hundreds of miles to the location of Stonehenge.  The bluestones compose the inner circle within the formation and were transported from the southwestern tip of Wales. Each stone weighs 4 tons and about 80 stones were used. Just in the inner circle alone there was a lot of time and money put into the effort. The great sarsen stones, the outer circle, weigh up to 50 tons and were transported about 20 miles, due to their size an estimated 600 men were needed to move 1 stone and there are about 40.  One purpose of Stonehenge is to track astronomical patterns and provide as a calendar, others believe it to be a place of rituals. Although it is unknown how Stonehenge was constructed it was the first of its kind.  The Culloden Battle took place near Newlands, Highland on April 16, 1746. The Battle was between the Jacobite army and the government soldiers and was an exceptionally bloody battle. In remembrance of the soldiers that passed a monument now stands at 20 feet high, Duncan Forbes began building the Culloden Memorial Cairn [1c]in 1881. Added later where large stones to commemorate the individual clans, the memorial are built of stone that have been cemented together costing many man-hours. 

Governmentbuildings are very iconic to the history of where they reside. Whether it be asupply base or a temporary prison they are all viewed as secure bases.The Fishbourne Roman Palace [2a] was the site of large granaries for the Roman army; they were constructed in 43AD. The first buildings were the granaries and later the surrounding palace buildings, center courtyard and gardens were added.  The Palace looked very well designed and elegant with the new use of columns. The inner bath area was also a new architectural design.  The Palace of the Popes [2b] is a very luxurious building and was enormously expensive consuming much of the papacy’s income during its construction in 1252AD. The walls of the Palace stretch 50 meters into the sky giving it the identity of a strong fortress and showing the power of the Popes in the middle ages. The Palace was originally built as a home for the Pope but continued construction added chapels with beautiful frescos that still can be seen today. After 1791 the Palace was taken over by the Napoleonic French state to be converted into a military barracks and prison, during this time the palace was damaged and the interior was gutted to be used as stables. The architecture inside the Grand Chapel was a new technique used to create high ceilings called the rib vault. The arches join at the top and the legs form a half circle.The Senate House [2c] is located in the heart of Bloomsbury, London and was constructed in 1932. The Art Deco building is the second tallest in London towering at 210 feet. Charles Holden, the architect, used inspiration of ancient Greece when designing the interior of the building. The Senate House has many details put into the design making it a very costly building.  The building is home to the administrative offices for the University of London and also houses the Senate House Library.   

Cathedralsand places of worship are seen around the world; many cities have veryintricate and large buildings to show they have money and power. Ely Cathedral [3a]is a Gothic style church located in Cambridgeshire, England. Construction began in 1083 and continued to 1375, there are 2 towers and the plan of the building is a cruciform. With this Cathedral they paid close attention to lighting within the chapel in a unique way. This is a new technique being used with different shapes of glass and colors. Quite a bit of money has been donated to the Cathedral for upkeep and restoration. Christ Church Cathedral in Oxford [3b] is a very embellished church; much work went into making such a beautiful creation. From the many stained glass windows to the various tombs and memorials you can see how much money and man-hours went into this building. The Cathedral was established in 1525 and was built with a Gothic style. The rib vaults in the ceiling have been taken to the next level with a beautiful chancel ceiling and there are sculpted crown moldings at every corner. Saint Paul’s Cathedral [3c] began construction in 1632 but suffered a halting fire in 1666, the Great Fire of London; construction was not fully completed until 1723. St. Paul’s Cathedral is England’s only cathedral that has been built in a classical architectural design. The dome on top it the eye catcher of the building and was the part of the design Wren wanted to be perfect because the dome was so heavy new techniques were developed to support it. Wren turned the dome into a timber shell covered in lead; this allowed him to get the look that he wanted with the silhouette on the outside and high ceilings on the inside. His use of pendentives was ingenious and allowed him to create a successful building. 

Architects over time have built very intricate buildings and have developed new techniques to complete the look they want. These techniques can be seen in different memorials, government buildings and cathedrals as well as many other buildings. With the use of new technology constructing buildings has become easier with the heavy lifting. I think that by looking at a building you can look into the mind of the architect by searching for all the different techniques that have been used and where they received their inspiration.


[1a] West Kennet Long Barrow Tomb, Neolithic 3600BC-2500BC,
Salisbury Hill, England

[1b] Stonehenge, Prehistoric 3000BC-1500BC, Wiltshire,

[1c] Culloden Memorial Cairn,
1881, Newlands, Highland, Duncan Forbes

[2a] Fishbourne Roman Palace, 1AD, West Sussex, England

[2b] Palace of the Popes, 1252AD, Avignon, France

[2c] Senate House, 1932, London, England, Charles Holden

[3a] Ely Cathedral, 1803-1375, Chambridgeshire, England

[3b] Christ Church Cathedral, 1525, Oxford, England

[3c] St. Paul’s Cathedral, 1632-1723, London, England,
Christopher Wren,_st_pauls.aspx