The term prehistory refers to
A) time periods before 1B) the period before the invention of writing.
C) the earliest civilizations.
D) only the civilization of Mesopotamia.
Modern science indicates that the first human beings
A) appeared in Africa.
B) lived millions of years ago.
C) developed stone tools.
D) all of the above.
The revolution in human culture between 70,000 and 10,000 B.C. included all of the following except
A) improved manipulation of the environment through technology and/or organization.
B) cave paintings and notations on bones.
C) dramatic increase in information being communicated.
D) the establishment of cities.
The Neolithic Revolution was
A) a major tribal revolt.
B) a major change in tool-making.
C) the dawn of the Ice Age.
D) the change from hunter-gatherer to farming life.
The earliest civilizations developed about
A) 3,500,000 B.C.
B) 50,000 B.C.
C) 3500-3000 B.C.
D) 1000 B.C.
The first civilizations emerged near
B) the ocean.
D) desert trade routes.
The new civilized states were characterized by
A) hunting and farming.
B) complex urban organization.
C) the use of stone implements.
D) oral recordkeeping but no writing.
All of the following accurately refer to cuneiform except
A) it initially developed for economic purposes.
B) it consisted of wedge-shaped impressions on clay.
C) it developed in Mesopotamia.
D) it inspired Egyptian writing.
Sumerian cities were all of the following except
A) peaceful and sparsely populated.
B) economically and politically organized.
C) culturally creative.
D) characterized by large temples to their gods.
A) an Akkadian-speaking conqueror of the Sumerians.
B) the reforming king of Lagash who sought to protect the mother that is in distress.
C) the first known woman poet.
D) the Sumerian goddess of love and war.
Hammurabi's Code provided for each of the following except
A) ownership of property by women.
B) the principle of an eye for an eye.
C) justice dependent on a person's social class.
D) the elimination of mutilation, drowning, and impaling.
The Mesopotamian religion is characterized by
A) the belief in one god.
B) anthropomorphic gods who inspire awe and fear.
C) a covenant between the gods and people.
D) a belief in an afterlife as a reward or punishment.
The Epic of Gilgamesh teaches all of the following except
A) the need for a tyrannical government.
B) the value of deep friendships.
C) a philosophy of fatalism.
D) a "biblical" Flood.
The Mesopotamians developed
A) two systems of numbers: decimal and sexagesimal.
B) the Pythagorean Theorem.
C) a simple pregnancy test of moderate accuracy.
D) all of these.
Ancient Egypt owed its fertile soil to
B) chemical fertilizer.
C) the Nile.
D) crop rotation.
The Egyptians viewed the pharaoh as
A) a cruel tyrant.
B) a leader who received power from the people.
C) an unimportant figurehead.
D) a benevolent god.
A distinctive feature of Egyptian religion was
A) its emphasis on the afterlife.
C) a consistent, analytical mythology.
D) a small number of gods.
The Semitic Hyksos
A) invaded from Canaan and occupied Egypt.
B) ended the humane attitudes of the Middle Kingdom.
C) introduced advanced military technology to Egypt.
D) accomplished all of the above.
The Eighteenth Dynasty of the New Kingdom included all of the following except
A) a warrior-pharaoh who expanded Egyptian control over neighboring countries.
B) an important female pharaoh.
C) the building of the Great Pyramids at Giza.
D) a pharaoh who undertook a bold attempt at religious innovation.
Among the greatest and most lasting of Egyptian artistic achievements was
D) cuneiform writing.
The monotheism of the Amarna Reform
A) permitted universal, direct worship of a "solar disk" god.
B) permanently replaced the worship of Amun-Re.
C) introduced the concept of an all-powerful, jealous god.
D) died along with its founder, the pharaoh Akhenaten.
A) had poor reputations in antiquity.
B) had no medical treatises to rely on.
C) were popular practitioners of a variety of techniques.
D) believed that only the gods could heal injuries and illnesses.
The treaty between the pharaoh and the king of Hatti provided for all of the following except
A) eternal peace between Egypt and the Hittites.
B) the promise of mutual aid if one was attacked.
C) the return of refugees.
D) reparations for losses incurred at the Battle of Qadesh.
Ebla and Ugarit were
A) flourishing city-states in the area of modern Syria and Palestine.
B) Egyptian gods invoked by doctors and patients.
C) the sons of Ramesses II.
D) conquerors of Egypt.
All of the following are true of Ebla except that
A) it was a hereditary monarchy.
B) it fostered trade through commercial treaties.
C) its queens had significant political authority.
D) it was conquered by the Amorites.
The main achievement of Ugaritic culture was
A) the alphabet.
B) cuneiform religious script.
C) epic poetry.
D) the first dictionary.
The first Indo-European civilization in western Asia was that of the
All of the following can be attributed to the Hittites except
A) a strong nobility competing for power with the king.
B) mastery of chariot warfare.
C) a number of powerful queens and queen mothers.
D) a loose and chaotic government.
What best illustrates the Hittites' "genuine and original sense of history"?
A) livelier and better argued annals.
B) well-stocked museums.
C) a conscious imitation of older civilizations.
D) a religion in which the gods had a plan for the human race.
The Sea Peoples were
A) the peaceful inhabitants of Egypt's coastal areas.
B) mysterious raiders of eastern Mediterranean states.
C) the founders of the Hattian state.
D) the first settlers of Crete.
The collapse of the international system between 1200 and 1150 B.C.
A) resulted in the disappearance of the ancient cultures.
B) is thoroughly understood.
C) seems to have occurred because of foreign invasion, domestic problems, and possibly other factors.
D) resulted in a universal empire ruled by the Sea Peoples.
Which of the following had an important, but indirect, influence on the West?
B) the Hebrews
All of the following are true of the Assyrians except that
A) they used terror and deportation as political tactics.
B) their main deity, Ashur, was a goddess of peace.
C) provincial organization tended to discourage revolts.
D) part of their success was due to the weakness of the states they invaded.
The Neo-Babylonians shared with the Assyrians
A) accurate astronomical observations and predictions.
B) a love of literature.
C) a strong pacifist tradition.
D) an indifference to any form of study unrelated to warfare.
The most important historical contribution of the Phoenicians was
A) the use of cedar wood for furniture.
B) the kings' merchant council.
D) the spread of urban culture and the alphabet.
Cyrus the Great was
A) a prince of the Medes.
B) founder of the Persian Empire.
C) one of the magi.
D) leader of an attack on Greece.
Reasons for the success of Achaemenid Persia included all of the following except
A) ruthless suppression of dissent.
B) a strong military.
C) general respect for the law.
D) administrative competence.
Persian imperial administration combined
A) democracy and oligarchy.
B) absolute monarchy and theocracy.
C) semi-independent provincial government with central control.
D) local self-government with control by the senate.
The Persian king was
A) worshiped as a god.
D) surrounded by splendid ceremonies and art.
The religion of Zarathustra included all of the following except
A) ethical dualism.
B) the obligation of the individual to behave rightly.
C) eternal reward or punishment based on earthly behavior.
D) an evil spirit named Ahura Mazda.
The Hebrews were
A) a powerful Mesopotamian people who conquered the Babylonians.
B) a small, often-conquered people who founded the Western religious tradition.
C) the original inhabitants of a land known as Canaan or Palestine.
D) the founders of Western science and philosophy.
The Hebrews came to believe in
A) a god of good and a god of evil.
B) a pantheistic world spirit.
C) no gods.
D) one transcendent god.
In its current form, the Hebrew Bible includes
A) the Torah or Pentateuch.
B) the historical books of the early prophets and the books of the later prophets.
C) the writings (poems, proverbs, and wisdom literature).
D) all of these.
All of the following are features of the Hebrew religion except
A) respect for other religions and the freedom of the individual conscience.
B) a covenant between YHWH and the Hebrews.
C) an enormous amount of legal material.
D) a sacred, national history.
The greatest king of Israel was
The main role of the prophets was
B) exhorting the Hebrews to righteousness and devotion to God.
C) leadership of the Hebrew army.
D) political rule of Israel.
All of the following resulted from the Babylonian Captivity of the Hebrews except
A) a divorce of membership in the Jewish community from actual residence.
B) the current form of the Torah.
C) absolute resistance to assimilation.
D) the rise of synagogues.
The god of the Hebrews demanded
A) circumcision and ritual sacrifices only.
B) equality of men and women.
C) merciful treatment of the Canaanites.
D) worship, obedience, and a comprehensive and forceful system of laws.
The historical development of Greece was influenced by the geographical factors of
A) mountains and sea.
B) rivers and lakes.
C) desert and sea.
D) plains and rivers.
Minoan civilization was centered on
A) the island of Crete.
B) the Peloponnesus.
C) the Cycladic Islands.
D) the island of Cyprus.
The origins of Cretan civilization are controversial because
A) they had no written language.
B) their language is undeciphered.
C) no archaeological evidence has been found.
D) they told lies about themselves.
Which of the following does not apply to the Minoans?
A) huge, elaborate palace complexes.
B) a sophisticated culture.
C) the earliest form of the Greek language.
D) a certain "lost-Eden quality."
The Mycenaeans were to the Minoans as
A) warriors and sailors were to merchants and artists.
B) monotheists were to polytheists.
C) Babylonians were to the Persians.
D) people from Lower Egypt were to people from Upper Egypt.
The Mycenaean period was succeeded by
A) the rise of Thebes.
B) the revival of Crete.
C) a cultural renaissance.
D) cultural, economic, and demographic decline.
Economic life in the Greek Dark Ages was
A) centered on the cities.
B) totally destroyed.
C) poor, based on small-scale farming and trade.
Beginning about 750 B.C., all of the following occurred in the Greek world except
A) a shift from herding to farming.
B) the rise of city-states.
C) colonization of the Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts.
D) the Thera catastrophy.
Which of the following most accurately describes Troy?
A) pure myth.
B) a wealthy city associated with the Hittite Empire.
C) the last of the Mycenaean cities to fall to the Dorians.
D) birthplace of Homer.
The Iliad and the Odyssey portray
A) the world of the Mycenaeans.
B) the war between Athens and Sparta.
C) the history of Crete.
D) the origin of the gods on Mount Olympus.
Greek religion included all of the following elements except
A) immortal and powerful humanlike gods.
B) a concept of divine justice.
C) transcendent, all-knowing gods.
D) divine intervention in human affairs.
Which of the following did the Homeric heroes display?
A) Cunning and military valor
B) Human frailty
C) Aristocratic contempt for ordinary people
D) All of these
All of the following were part of early Greek government except
A) a council of elder basileis.
C) an assembly of warriors.
D) a godlike emperor.
Penelope and Andromache were
A) archaic Greek goddesses.
B) long-lost Greek city-states.
C) relatives of Homer.
D) heroines of Homer's poems.
After 750 B.C. the main focus of loyalty in Greek society became
A) the city-state.
B) the family.
C) the nation-state of Greece.
D) the empire.
Archaic Greece experienced all of the following except
A) the simultaneous growth of individualism and a tight community spirit.
B) the coexistence of deep religious piety and the West's first nontheistic philosophy.
C) the development of Western types of government and notions of citizenship and the rule of law.
D) dramatic economic expansion and the establishment of empire.
The Greek economic revival of the eighth century B.C. included all of the following elements except
A) terraced hillsides and drained marshes.
B) a sharp increase in population.
C) large plantations worked by slaves.
D) increased trade.
A) extended to present-day France in the west and to the Black Sea in the east.
B) relieved population pressures at home.
C) spread urban civilization westward, especially to Italy.
D) all of the above
The phalanx was
A) a mythical bird that rose renewed from the flames.
B) a tightly ordered military unit of soldier-farmers.
C) the long wall of Athens connecting it to its port, Piraeus.
D) the Phoenician fleet that brought the alphabet to Greece.
The basic unit of Greek political organization was
A) the duchy.
B) the polis.
C) the nation-state.
D) the Greek Empire.
Greek cities centered on an acropolis designed for
B) sports events.
A) were conceived as communities or a "common thing" (koinon).
B) accepted women, but not slaves, as citizens.
C) lacked an ethos of measure and moderation.
D) were almost always democracies.
Greek tyrants, often placed in power by hoplite phalanxes, were
A) totalitarian dictators.
B) foreign usurpers.
C) frequently political and social reformers.
D) universally hated.
Characteristics of Sparta included
A) openness to outside influences.
B) uncompromising pacifism.
C) austerity, militarism, and mixed government.
D) a devotion to scholarly pursuits.
In Spartan society
A) newborns were inspected for fitness by public inspectors.
B) males began military training at age 7, served in the secret service between the ages of 18 and 20, and remained in the army till age
C) women were given a public education and a large degree of freedom.
D) all the above characteristics were exhibited.
The Peloponnesian League was
A) an anti-Sparta coalition.
B) a cultural society.
C) the earliest Olympic Games committee.
D) a powerful network of alliances formed by Sparta.
Major political and economic reforms, eventually leading to demokratia, were made in Athens by
B) the Eupatrids.
C) the Areopagus.
D) the assembly.
The poetry and sculpture of Archaic Greece are characterized by
A) emphasis on the communal rather than the individual.
B) impersonal stylization.
C) some degree of realism and individualism.
D) exact imitation of Egyptian models.
In Archaic and Classical Greece, homosexuality
A) was the ideal romantic love of the male elite.
B) usually involved a major age difference between male partners.
C) was combined with heterosexual marriage and raising a family.
D) had all the above characteristics
Which of the following is not true about Greek religion during the Archaic and Classical periods?
A) While the Olympic gods were worshiped, each polis had its own patron deity.
B) Oracles, such as the one at Delphi, were regularly consulted.
C) Piety and humility became irrelevant as faith was questioned.
D) There was a growing emphasis on Zeus's majesty and justice.
The Ionian philosophers were
A) the first people to ask questions about the universe.
B) pioneers in abstract, rational analysis of causality.
C) great inventors of technology.
D) the last of the great Greek philosophers.
Greek pre-Socratic philosophy included all of the following except
A) an attempt to discover the fundamental element out of which the world is made.
B) a self-avowed love of wisdom.
C) the idea that reality was not the world of the senses.
D) regular, controlled experimentation.
Lawgivers such as Solon and tyrants such as Cleisthenes helped to develop Athenian democracy by
A) fostering respect for the law.
B) breaking down the aristocracy through equality and mixing.
C) nurturing political stability through ostracism.
D) all these measures combined.
A) was direct and participatory.
B) depended on a strong executive.
C) gave women the vote.
D) was indirect and representative.
The Persian Wars were touched off by
A) the Persian burning of Sparta.
B) the Persian occupation of Crete.
C) Macedonian defiance of Darius.
D) Athenian support of the Ionian revolt.
The Battle of Marathon resulted in
A) a Persian victory.
B) a draw.
C) an Athenian victory.
D) annihilation of the Athenian army.
With the Persian Wars behind them, the Greeks
A) entered their Classical period.
B) experienced a prolonged war between Athens and Sparta.
C) became conscious of their common culture and developed a contempt for foreigners as "barbarians."
D) all of the above
After winning the Peloponnesian War, Sparta
A) established a stable new political order.
B) lacked the skills and resources to govern the former Athenian Empire.
C) enjoyed a steady growth of its citizen population.
D) allied with Persia, Corinth, and Thebes.
Classical Greek culture included
A) an emphasis on public life.
B) a creative tension between the religious and the worldly spirit.
C) the Thesmophoria, a three-day women's fertility celebration.
D) all of the above
The Sophists were
A) founders of the great philosophic systems of ancient Greece.
B) teachers of rhetoric who valued success over truth.
C) followers of Socrates.
Socrates was interested in
A) scientific research.
B) the art of rhetoric.
C) investigating human virtue and truth through questioning.
D) analyzing politics and writing The Republic.
All of the following are true of Plato except that
A) he believed that truth is found in abstract ideal forms.
B) he was interested in scientific observation and experimentation.
C) he favored the rule of philosopher-kings.
D) he believed in absolute good and evil.
Plato's philosophical approach may be termed
Unlike Plato, Aristotle
A) did not believe in absolute standards of good and evil.
B) emphasized observation and classification of facts.
C) advocated democracy.
D) had little influence in later times.
All of the following are true of Athenian drama except that
A) it originated in festivals to Dionysus, the god of wine.
B) it involved open-air performances.
C) it was a poetic medium for the ideology of the polis.
D) it was the best prose of Classical Greece.
Greek tragedy included all of the following except
A) the theme pathos mathei (suffering teaches).
B) heroes with tragic failings.
C) comic relief and the occasional happy ending.
D) katharsis (purification of the senses).
In Sophocles' Antigone, the heroine
A) struggles to obey divine rather than human law.
B) obeys the laws of the community rather than Zeus.
C) kills her brother and tries to bury him.
D) marries Orestes.
A) offered a moral commentary on contemporary life.
B) was lively and often obscene.
C) included a play in which women ended the Peloponnesian War by going on a sex strike.
D) all of these
Herodotus's historiai examined
A) peoples in Europe, Asia, and Africa and the Persian Wars.
B) the Peloponnesian War.
C) scientific subjects such as the circumference of the earth.
D) medicine and the four humors.
Unlike Herodotus, Thucydides was all of the following except
A) a contemporary of the events he described.
B) concerned with careful observation and historical accuracy.
C) a historian of many ancient civilizations.
D) interested in the effects of war on the human soul.
Alexander's conquests were crucial for extending the Greek world
A) briefly as far east as present-day Pakistan and Afghanistan.
B) to include Egypt and the Levant until the Arab conquests of the seventh century A.D.
C) through the entire reach of the former Persian Empire.
D) all of the above
The new Hellenistic world included all of the following except
A) expanded trade and urbanization.
B) a durable political unity expressing a one-world vision.
C) extensive cultural and intellectual cross-pollination.
D) royal patronage of science and literary criticism.
After eliminating or neutralizing Greek opposition to Macedonian control, Philip planned to
A) conquer the Persian Empire.
B) restore democracy in Athens.
D) attempt the conquest of Italy.
Alexander the Great was
A) a good soldier but uneducated.
B) a great conqueror whose policies opened a new age in history.
C) eventually killed by the Persians.
D) dedicated to enslaving the peoples he conquered.
Alexander's later career involved all of the following except
A) an ongoing military campaign.
B) weakening ambition.
C) increasing despotism.
D) fusion of different peoples.
After Alexander's death, most of his empire
A) dissolved into tiny kingdoms.
B) was divided into three main kingdoms.
C) reverted to Persian rule.
D) remained united under the Antigonids.
In the Hellenistic world, the new definition of being Greek
A) ended all prejudice against non-Greeks.
B) expanded to include the Macedonians but not individuals of Egyptian or Persian origins.
C) meant sharing the same culture but not necessarily the same blood.
D) excluded all those who practiced non-Greek religions.
0One feature of the Hellenistic economy was
A) an economic boom, especially in Egypt.
B) a seventy-five-year depression.
C) a lack of coinage compared with the previous period.
D) the concentration of trade and commerce in Greece.
0The problems of Hellenistic Greece included
A) class conflict and social revolution.
B) unsuccessful attempts to form federal leagues.
C) another war between Athens and Sparta.
D) constant slave revolts.
The wealthiest, most sophisticated, and longest-lasting Hellenistic kingdom was
A) the Seleucid Empire.
B) the Antigonid kingdom.
C) Ptolemaic Egypt.
Like the ancient pharaohs, the Ptolemaic rulers of Egypt
A) built pyramids.
B) were able to prevent regional discontent.
C) intervened in the economy with great success.
D) worshiped cats.
All of the following apply to the Rosetta stone except
A) it was discovered by French soldiers in 1B) the rose-shaped stone symbolized a new motif replacing the ancient Egyptian symbol of the lotus flower.
C) it led to the modern European deciphering of hieroglyphics.
D) the stone contained a trilingual inscription (Greek, hieroglyphic, and demotic [ordinary] Egyptian).
The city of Pergamum was all of the following except
A) a center of Stoic-influenced scholarship.
B) the intellectual and artistic capital of Greek Asia.
C) the capital of the new Celtic kingdom in Anatolia.
D) famous for its sculptors and monumental buildings.
The Indian kingdoms conquered by Alexander
A) remained under Greek rule.
B) preserved no evidence of Greek occupation.
C) were able to convert Greece to Buddhism.
D) were conquered by Greek Bactrians.
All of the following are true of the Museum at Alexandria except that it
A) contained the largest Greek library in the world.
B) was founded by Alexander's teacher, Aristotle.
C) was a center of study for an elite group of scholars.
D) represented a departure from the Classical attitude toward culture.
The New Comedy of Menander
A) imitated the Old Comedy of Aristophanes.
B) focused on public life and politics.
C) was raucous and ribald.
D) dealt in a restrained manner with private life.
The typical Alexandrian literary figure was apt to be a
The Argonautica of Apollonius of Rhodes illustrates
A) the heroism of his forceful hero.
B) the decline in the status of women.
C) an interest in abstract questions of public policy.
D) a focus on interior emotional life.
The idylls of Theocritus were
A) studies of courtly life.
B) histories of the Ptolemaic dynasty.
C) the first known pastoral poems.
D) very influential on the Western literary imagination.
All of the following are true of Hellenistic science except that
A) it produced some practical technological benefits.
B) it remained indistinguishable from philosophy.
C) state patronage fostered it.
D) contacts between Greek and non-Greek learning stimulated it.
A) is considered to be the greatest Greek mathematician.
B) calculated the approximate value of pi.
C) invented an irrigation device known as Archimedes' screw.
D) all of the above
Euclid is famous for
A) having no influence in later times.
B) being wrong about the sun going around the earth.
C) creating a system of geometry that greatly influenced later civilizations.
D) discovering the principle of leverage.
The circumference of the earth was accurately calculated
A) only in the twentieth century.
B) by Eratosthenes of Cyrene.
C) in fifth-century B.C. Athens.
D) by Assyrian mathematicians.
All of the following contributed to the progress of Hellenistic medicine except
A) the invention of the stethoscope.
B) recognition of the brain as the center of the nervous system.
C) the rational approach of the Greeks.
D) dissection of human bodies, living and dead.
Hellenistic technology produced
A) a scientific revolution.
B) an industrial revolution.
C) mechanical toys.
D) laborsaving machines.
The position of women in the Hellenistic Age was
A) worse than in earlier times.
B) about the same as in Classical Greece.
C) considerably improved.
D) indistinguishable from that of men.
A) reflected a changing attitude toward women with the appearance of the female nude.
B) focused as much on the inner as the outer life of the individual.
C) often portrayed strong emotion.
D) exhibited all these characteristics.
Which of the following does not apply to Hellenistic philosophy?
A) it primarily appealed to the elite.
B) its central task was the preservation of Classical philosophy.
C) philosophers focused most on ethics, the best way to lead one's life.
D) the essence of the good life seemed to be peace of mind.
The goal of the Cynics seems to have been
A) world revolution.
B) independence from social, moral, and cultural norms.
C) civic virtue.
Stoicism included all of the following except
A) belief in an absolute standard of good based on philosophy.
B) trusting the evidence of the senses.
C) rejection of public life.
D) a cosmopolitan outlook.
The Stoic founder Zeno considered the universe and human behavior to be guided by
A) the gods of Olympus.
D) divine reason.
Epicureans believed in all of the following except
A) the atomic theory of a mechanistic universe.
B) no life after death and the irrelevance of the gods.
C) the avoidance of pain and the pursuit of intellectual/spiritual pleasure.
D) the unreliability of the sense and the impossibility of true knowledge.
The growing popularity of mystery religions, especially among the masses,
A) indicated a decline in traditional Olympian polytheism.
B) was another example of the cultural fusion of Hellenistic times.
C) showed a thirst for ethical guidance, release from worries, and reassurance about death.
D) showed all of these.
The cult of Isis included all of the following except
A) a feminine, maternal quality.
B) the promise of a blessed afterlife.
C) the identification of the Egyptian god Serapis with the Greek god Pluto.
D) the Last Judgment.
The impact of Greek culture on Judaism included
A) the development of an apocalyptic literature.
B) a revival of traditionalism.
C) a greater emphasis on individual study and prayer.
D) all of these.
The Septuagint is
A) a Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible.
B) a collection of Hebrew poems.
C) the Christian New Testament.
D) a Stoic text.
The Roman Republic
A) has had a strong influence of the Western civic tradition.
B) mixed popular power with government controlled by wealthy landowners.
C) had an expansionist momentum fueled by fear, ambition, and greed.
D) possessed all of these qualities.
The early peoples of the Italian peninsula
A) were all of the same ethnic background.
B) were refugees from Minoan Crete.
C) included Greeks, Celts, Latins, and Etruscans.
D) all spoke the same language.
Which of the following does not apply to the Etruscans?
A) a brilliant, wealthy, and warlike people whose language has yet to be translated.
B) elected kings of early Rome.
C) their elite women could attend nude male athletic contests.
D) though neighbors, they exerted no influence on Rome.
Patricians and plebeians were
A) tribes living in Italy.
B) upper and lower classes in Rome.
C) schools of thought.
D) military divisions.
A) began with a democratic system.
B) started with a republic before evolving into a monarchy.
C) began and always remained a republic.
D) evolved from monarchy to republic to empire.
Roman society and culture may be described as
A) conservative, pragmatic, and open to foreign influences.
B) revolutionary and dynamic but closed to foreign influences.
C) anarchic but militaristic.
D) egalitarian but with elitist tendencies.
Polybius argued that the Roman Republic
A) had a mixed constitution with executive, deliberative, and legislative branches.
B) was an oligarchy behind a democratic façade.
C) found its strength in a loose federation of diverse peoples.
D) would inevitably evolve into an imperial autocracy.
The "conflict of the orders" was
A) the war that followed the overthrow of the king.
B) a prolonged struggle between the patricians and plebeians.
C) a revolt of Roman allies.
D) a serious slave rebellion.
The Twelve Tables, the tribunes, and lex Hortensia had the following in common:
A) they all contributed to the growing power of the plebeians.
B) they guaranteed and strengthened the patrician hold on power.
C) they were foreign practices absorbed into Roman society as a result of territorial expansion.
D) they were fundamental elements of early Roman religion.
Which of the following cannot be accurately associated with the paterfamilias?
A) supreme power over the household.
B) the eldest living male in a family.
C) legal control over daughters till marriage and sons till adulthood.
D) the power of life and death over his wife and children.
Women of the Republic were
A) always legally under a man's control but also had much more prestige and freedom than women in Classical Greece.
B) treated essentially as were women in Classical Greece.
C) in control of society but only "behind the scenes."
D) treated essentially as slaves.
The patron-client relationship was basic to Roman society and
A) required that patron and client treat each other with respect and fidelity.
B) meant that patrons would put their clients before their own in-laws.
C) was often extended to conquered countries.
D) meant all of the above.
Which of the following did not apply to Roman religion?
A) in its earliest form it was animistic.
B) religion aimed at "binding" the gods to human requests.
C) the Roman state religion grew out of household religion.
D) early Roman religion showed strong Egyptian influences.
All of the following were factors in Rome's continuing conquest except
B) a desire to spread Roman culture.
C) personal ambition.
D) the habitual use of force to meet supposed threats to Roman security.
Compared with the phalanx, the Roman legion was
A) less suited to mountain terrain.
B) less easily maneuvered.
C) rarely successful.
D) more flexible and adaptable.
Roman expansion in Italy was facilitated by
A) the extension of citizenship to annexed peoples.
B) generally benevolent treatment of Rome's allies.
C) the building of roads and the establishment of Roman colonies.
D) all of these.
Rome won the Punic Wars against its greatest rival in the western Mediterranean:
Roman annexation of Carthage, Macedon, and Greece led to
A) a dynamic expansion around the entire Mediterranean.
B) a significant Hellenization of Roman culture.
C) substantial economic growth and social dislocation.
D) all of these.
The stability of the Late Republic was threatened by all of the following except
A) the impoverishment of the small farmer, who formed the backbone of the Roman army.
B) the growing unwillingness of the elite to subordinate their personal interests and ambitions to the good of society.
C) an other-worldliness spread by foreign religions.
D) the use of armies for domestic political purposes.
The main goal of the Gracchi, for which they were murdered, was
A) to redistribute land on behalf of the poor.
B) to seize power and replace the Republic with a monarchy.
C) to replace traditional religion with Greek philosophy.
D) to maintain laws prohibiting conspicuous consumption.
One result of Marius's military reform proposals was
A) increased loyalty of the army to the senate.
B) the unpopularity of Marius with most soldiers.
C) the large-scale distribution of land to soldiers.
D) a shift in soldiers' loyalty from the senate to their commanders.
The most enduring of Sulla's reforms was
A) his reform of the law courts.
B) his assumption of dictatorship.
C) the strengthening of the senate.
D) confiscation and distribution of land to soldiers.
All of the following can be associated with Spartacus's slave revolt except
A) general social discontent and repeated slave revolts.
B) a serious revolt of Roman allies and several major cities.
C) the defeat of nine Roman armies sent to suppress the revolt.
D) the crucifixion of 6,000 defeated rebels along the main road to Rome.
Julius Caesar accomplished all of the following except
A) the introduction of the 365¼-day calendar.
B) debt reduction and colonies for veterans and the poor.
C) abolition of the senate and the creation of the office of emperor.
D) significant expansion of Roman citizenship.
Caesar's account of the Gauls described
A) a division of the elite between druids (priests) and knights.
B) the practice of human sacrifice.
C) the servile status of ordinary people.
D) all of these.
The result of Caesar's assassination was
A) the restoration of the Republic.
B) more upheaval and civil war.
C) an era of peace and equilibrium.
D) the peaceful restoration of the monarchy.
The Western legal tradition has its roots in Rome. An important development in Roman law about the time of Cicero was
A) the interpretation of law by the pontiffs.
B) the adoption of the code of Draco.
C) the emergence of a class of professional legal experts.
D) the influence of the Hebrew Covenant.
Cicero's advocacy of human brotherhood
A) reflected his preference for Stoicism.
B) manifested itself in a sincere sympathy for the poor.
C) stressed natural law and the divine spark in each person.
D) A and C
The reign of Augustus is considered
A) a golden age for Rome.
B) the low point of Roman history.
C) a time of civil war and economic decline.
D) the golden age of the Republic.
All of the following are true of Augustus's political methods except that
A) he claimed to restore the Republic.
B) his governmental reorganization reduced factional strife and instability.
C) he established a civil service.
D) he favored the popular assemblies over the senate.
The features of the imperial economy under Augustus included
A) the debasement of coinage to increase the money supply.
B) affluence everywhere in the empire except Italy.
C) a great variety of Italian exports.
D) the elimination of rural poverty and slavery.
For the urban poor, Augustus provided
A) very little help.
B) public works programs, free grain, and entertainment.
C) more debtors' prisons.
D) conscription into the army.
To defend the imperial borders, Augustus
A) increased the number of soldiers on all frontiers.
B) used a combination of negotiation, buffer states, and local concentrations of troops.
C) continued to expand them dramatically.
D) abandoned the African provinces.
In the field of jurisprudence, Augustus
A) fostered professionalism.
B) adapted Roman law to be used in the provinces.
C) allowed the first law school to open in Rome.
D) did all of these.
Roman culture under Augustus included all of the following except
A) Virgil's great epic poem, the Aeneid.
B) Livy's massive history of Rome.
C) building projects, including the Pantheon.
D) the elimination of competing religious faiths.
All of the following have been attributed to Livia, Augustus's wife, except
A) being one of the most powerful women in Roman history.
B) being a master of intrigue.
C) improving women's legal standing in the empire.
D) poisoning inconvenient individuals, including Augustus.
During the pax Romana, the empire experienced
A) genuine peace and prosperity.
B) an expansion of citizenship to nearly all free men.
C) significant cultural exchanges in a diverse population.
D) all of these.
The Five Good Emperors
A) made humaneness and effective government standard practice.
B) successfully expanded the empire's borders.
C) guaranteed the future stability and prosperity of Rome.
D) did all of the above.
The reign of Trajan was marked by
A) the success of his Parthian policy.
B) his refusal to cross the Danube.
C) the Roman Empire reaching its greatest geographical extent.
D) internal unrest, rare during the pax Romana.
During the pax Romana, the Roman economy exhibited all of the following except
A) growing agricultural demand from growing cities.
B) relatively easy and inexpensive travel and communications.
C) a relative backwardness compared to a modern economy.
D) an improved standard of living for the wealthy only.
Romanization did not include which of the following?
A) elimination of languages such as Berber, Aramaic, and Celtic.
B) spread of Roman architecture and technology.
C) extension of Roman law and citizenship.
D) spread of Roman entertainment such as gladiator shows.
Imperial law was all of the following except
A) a reflection of social inequality.
B) influential in later ages.
C) useful in imperial administration.
D) stricter on slavery than Republican law.
Non-Italians who wanted to enter the Roman military
A) were not accepted.
B) were never granted citizenship.
C) became legionaries and not auxiliaries.
D) eventually outnumbered Italians in the army.
Silver Age culture included all of the following except
A) encyclopedias and scientific works.
B) fine historical works by Tacitus and Plutarch.
C) satires and literary criticism.
D) extensive silver mines constructed on the islands of Sicily and Corsica.
Tacitus expressed criticism of the social conditions of his time
A) by describing the virtues of the Germanic tribes.
B) by writing sarcastic poetry.
C) through his speeches in the senate.
D) through his plays.
All of the following contributed to the Third-Century Crisis except
A) Marcus Aurelius's son, Commodus.
B) the final collapse of Roman resilience.
C) economic decline, brigandage, and urban decline.
D) barbarian attacks on the borders.
The Sassanid Persians
A) made a pact with the emperor Valerian that saved Rome's eastern provinces.
B) were defeated by the Parthians.
C) were peaceful nomads who posed no threat to Rome.
D) overran the eastern provinces and captured Emperor Valerian.
The religious situation in the Roman Empire circa A.D. 200 can best be described as
A) extremely divisive.
C) diverse and tolerant.
D) increasingly irrelevant.
A) a dualistic religion from Persia.
B) a variety of Epicurean philosophy.
C) founded by Buddha.
D) a short-lived cult that died out in A.D.
All of the following are true of rabbinic Judaism except
A) it emerged in the first century A.D.
B) oral law was elevated to equal authority with the written Torah.
C) the old covenant was officially replaced by a new one.
D) distrust and hostility toward emergent Christianity.
All of the following are true of the life of Jesus except that it
A) was not documented by any of his followers.
B) spanned the years from his birth, about 4 B.C., to his crucifixion, resurrection, and ascension in A.D.
C) included three years of authoritative teaching and working of miracles.
D) was marked by the hostility of the Jewish religious establishment.
Jesus's teachings included
A) the conviction that the kingdom of God had already begun to arrive.
B) the need for inward purity rather than external compliance with the law.
C) a call for humility, generosity, and forgiveness.
D) all of these.
Which of the following cannot be attributed to Paul of Tarsus?
A) persecution of the Christians.
B) selective rejection of Jewish practices such as circumcision.
C) an emphasis on Jesus's death and resurrection.
D) designation as the "rock" upon which the church was built.
The Roman establishment found Christians to be a worrisome cult for all of the following reasons except
A) their apparent lack of patriotism.
B) the novelty of their group.
C) pagan revulsion toward Christian ethics.
D) the potentially seditious nature of Christian meetings.
Late Antiquity refers to
A) the final years of the pax Romana.
B) the transitional period from Antiquity to the Middle Ages.
C) the Third-Century Crisis before the revival of the Roman Empire.
D) none of these.
Diocletian's reforms included all of the following except
A) a huge expansion of the imperial bureaucracy.
B) a division of the empire into two administrative halves.
C) an increase in the size of the military by at least 50 percent.
D) a revival of the practices of the Principate.
The reforms of Diocletian
A) were a success in every way.
B) alienated the Roman elite and local leaders.
C) reduced economic distress.
D) were designed to reunite the eastern and western halves of the empire.
Constantine's policies included
A) abolishing the work of Diocletian.
B) stopping inflation.
C) founding a new imperial capital.
D) expanding the frontiers.
Constantine favored Christianity
A) after his childhood baptism.
B) before turning against it as emperor.
C) before he decided to restore paganism.
D) after seeing a vision and winning the Battle of the Milvian Bridge.
The system created by Diocletian and Constantine
A) saved the Roman Empire from the chaos of the third century.
B) resulted in greater control of society by the government.
C) produced an expanded army increasingly barbarian in composition.
D) did all of the above.
As Christianity grew in popularity
A) it spread from the cities to the countryside.
B) the church developed a hierarchical, institutional structure.
C) disagreements over differing beliefs increased in number and intensity.
D) all of the above happened.
All of the following are true of Arianism except that it
A) held that Christ was not God.
B) was condemned at the Council of Nicaea.
C) ceased to exist after Nicaea.
D) took hold among the barbarian tribes.
A) the division of the empire.
B) the existence of the Trinity.
C) the existence of two distinct natures in Jesus, one human and one divine.
D) the validity of traditional Hellenistic science.
All of the following may be attributed to the institutional church except
A) the increasing authority of women.
B) adoption of the administrative geography of the Roman state.
C) espousal of apostolic succession.
D) the increased power of the papacy and the theory of "Petrine Primacy."
In a famous letter to an emperor, Pope Gelasius held that
A) church and state are separate spheres, and the spiritual authority is higher in nature.
B) the church should be controlled by the state.
C) church and state should be one, controlled by the pope.
D) the emperor had no legitimate power.
All of the following apply to Pope Gregory I "the Great" except
A) descent from an old senatorial family.
B) the founding of Christian monasticism.
C) effective administration of urban services in the city of Rome.
D) a Roman sense of duty and obligation.
The final, decisive factor in the triumph of Christianity was
A) Constantine's Edict of Milan.
B) the death of Julian the Apostate.
C) the Council of Nicaea.
D) the capture of the Roman elite.
The primary impulse for monasticism was
A) a fervent desire to serve God by ministering to the physical and spiritual needs of the poor and the persecuted.
B) a desire for a life of leisure, comfort, and idleness.
C) the striving for a closer union with God by conquering the desires of the body.
D) a determination to build up the power of the institutional church.
How do eremitic monasticism and cenobitic monasticism differ?
A) the first is practiced by men, the second by women.
B) one favors the life of a hermit, the other life in a community.
C) the first emphasizes hard work, the second contemplation.
D) one was pagan, the other Christian.
Relations between barbarians and Romans included all of the following elements except
A) the Roman idea of barbarians as inferior to themselves.
B) invasions by individual groups of barbarians.
C) peaceful commercial and diplomatic contacts.
D) a carefully planned and coordinated invasion of the empire by the barbarians.
Barbarians supplanted Roman rule in the West
A) slowly and often with Roman permission and assistance.
B) in A.D. 476 with the fall of the city of Rome.
C) until the empire was restored by Justinian.
D) only when the Germanic peoples were thoroughly Romanized.
An unusual feature of Roman-Visigoth relations was that
A) some of the Visigoths settled within the empire.
B) the Visigoths served in the Roman army.
C) all the Visigoths were allowed to settle within the empire.
D) there was nothing but hostility on both sides.
After the campaign of Alaric and his brother, the Visigoths
A) left the Roman Empire forever.
B) returned Galla Placidia to her family.
C) allied with the Franks against the Romans.
D) formed the first Germanic kingdom on Roman soil.
All of the following are true of the Huns except that they were
A) a Celtic people from northwest Europe.
B) Asian nomads.
C) led by Attila.
D) persuaded to withdraw from Rome by Pope Saint Leo I.
The Frankish king Clovis was popular with Gallo-Romans because
A) he was Arian like them.
B) he was a candidate for Roman emperor.
C) they thought he would soon die.
D) he was Catholic, adopted Roman behavior, and had the same enemies they did.
The chapter lists all of the following as factors contributing to the end of Roman government in the West except
A) the best Roman leaders lived in the East.
B) Germanic peoples were increasingly being settled on Roman territory as groups rather than being dispersed among Romans.
C) Roman debauchery and overconfidence.
D) the government, army, and population were accustomed to Germans in their midst.
In the Germanic kingdoms of the sixth century
A) Latin persisted as the language of administration.
B) the most common local officials were counts, originally direct representatives of the emperor.
C) local administration remained based in cities and towns.
D) all of these were true.
Justinian's most lasting achievements included
A) the reconquest of the entire western empire.
B) the replacement of Orthodox Christianity with monophysitism.
C) lasting peace in the Balkans and Mesopotamia.
D) Hagia Sophia and the Justinian Code.
During the ascendancy of the eastern Roman Empire and the splintering of the western,
A) the daily lives of men and women of every social class changed relatively little.
B) the vast majority of the population experienced changes in legal status but not material well-being.
C) secular intellectual life lost its vitality but Christian culture flourished.
D) all of the above were true.
Late Antiquity saw a trend in the countryside that continued into the Middle Ages:
A) both slavery and freedom declined while tenants (coloni) increased.
B) economic difficulties increased slavery.
C) German custom gradually granted all people freedom.
D) agriculture was abandoned in favor of herding and commerce.
The Christian church offered women an alternative to the traditional role of their sex by
A) preaching the superiority of virginity and celibacy.
B) offering female saints as role models.
C) promoting a "democracy of sin" in which everyone, male and female, is equally in need of God's forgiveness.
D) doing all of the above.
Which best describes the time frame in which a definitive list of Old and New Testament books was adopted by the church?
A) from the second century to the middle of the fifth.
B) A.D. 325 at the Council of Nicaea.
C) from Constantine to Pope Gregory I the Great.
D) because of the doctrine of continuing revelation, the list is still growing.
Sometimes called "the last of the Romans," Boethius
A) was the main proponent of papal supremacy in the sixth century.
B) taught that the soul can rise through philosophy to a knowledge of God.
C) taught that the world was sharply divided between the civilized and holy (Rome) and the backward and pagan (Germanic peoples).
D) was among the last members of the elite to emigrate from Rome to Constantinople.
Saint Augustine, the leading Church Father in the West, taught all of the following except
A) the "spoiling of the Egyptians": using Classical learning for Christian purposes.
B) a definitive rejection of the Classical idea of humanity as good and capable of self-improvement.
C) the identification of the City of God with the Christianized Roman Empire.
D) that the validity of the sacraments is not dependent on the worthiness of the priest.
In the early Middle Ages, the three heirs to the Roman Empire shared all of the following except
A) the belief that each was chosen by God.
B) the same level of literacy and commerce.
C) an interaction of local customs and the Roman past.
D) the belief that their rulers were God's agents.
According to the chapter, Islam
A) preached a faith that was old in its basic elements but new in its formulation.
B) conquered territories from Spain to the frontiers of China.
C) created an imperial system with a coherent government and ideology.
D) did all of the above.
Arabia in the early seventh century was
A) a society based on tribes and competitive trade.
B) a unified nation-state.
C) desert with no cities.
D) mostly Zoroastrian in religion.
Muhammad was a
A) schoolteacher born in Medina.
B) Bedouin warlord.
C) preacher who converted everyone in Mecca except his wife.
D) caravan trader.
The "Five Pillars" of Islam include all of the following except
A) the donation of significant alms to the poor.
B) holy war against all nonbelievers.
C) individual prayers five times daily.
D) one month of daytime fasting per year.
The Quran states that
A) Allah is one; there is no Trinity.
B) Jesus, son of Mary, was a true prophet of God.
C) Abraham and Ismael build the Kaaba (in Mecc
A) as the house of Allah.
D) all of these are true.
All of the following are reasons for the rapid creation of the Muslim Empire except
A) the military weakness of the Byzantine and Persian Empires.
B) Muslim superiority in large-scale pitched battles.
C) the redirection of traditional violence out of Arabia and into foreign wars.
D) the disaffection of many groups within the Byzantine and Persian Empires.
As Islam expanded, Jews and Christians were considered
A) "Peoples of the Book."
B) sharers in the same scriptural tradition and so were spared the choice of conversion or death.
C) sharers in the same scriptural tradition and so were particularly evil traitors and deserved death.
D) A and B only
A religious split in Islam
A) never developed because unity was carefully enforced.
B) took place between Copts and Jacobites.
C) occurred between Shi'ites and Sunnis.
D) ended in the fragmentation of Islam into ten different sects.
--- Quiz 4
Fundamental changes that transformed the eastern Roman Empire into Byzantium include all of the following except
A) adoption of Christianity as the state religion.
B) sharp geographic contraction.
C) the creation of new military districts called themes.
D) neutralizing the powers of leading bureaucrats while multiplying the number of offices.
Byzantine culture was dominated by
A) intense theological debates that fostered religious innovation.
B) its secular Greco-Roman heritage.
C) the church and an inward-looking Christianity.
D) an increased militarization of the state and the need to compete with aggressive neighbors.
Iconoclasm included all of the following except
A) the massive destruction of sacred art.
B) a growing split between Orthodox and Catholic.
C) a growing reverence for icons as conduits into the spiritual realm.
D) Emperor Leo III's concern about military defeats.
The Visigoths in Spain
A) were able to unify and centralize the country.
B) were Catholic in a population of Arians.
C) offered the best hope of reunifying the West.
D) never unified the country because of unstable dynastic succession and foreign attacks.
In the eighth century, the Berbers conquered
A) all of Spain.
B) the Asturias Mountains.
D) all of Spain except for the Asturias in the northwest.
The Lombards in Italy
A) completely eliminated the Byzantine presence in the Italian peninsula.
B) were unable to unite the Lombard duchies under the king.
C) defeated Pepin and Charlemagne.
D) always remained Arian.
All of the following apply to the Donation of Constantine except
A) it was used to justify papal temporal power.
B) it stated that Constantine had given the pope authority to rule the western half of the Roman Empire.
C) it helped to establish Christianity as the state religion.
D) it was probably written in the 760s, over four centuries after the death of Constantine.
The Celtic regions of the British Isles experienced all of the following except
A) the development of large-scale political organizations before the consolidation of the Christian church.
B) complete Roman conquest but not complete Romanization.
C) elaborate mythologies about heroic Christian missionaries.
D) a different calendar from that of Rome.
Saint Bede was known for all of the following except
A) the use of A.D. in dates.
B) authoring a major work on English history.
C) his teaching.
D) influencing the English in choosing the Roman church.
Which of the following aided the Carolingians in their rise to power?
A) their bloody suppression of the Merovingian Revolt.
B) Charles Martels defeat by the Arabs in C) the eradication of rival noble families.
D) the backing of the papacy.
All of the following are true of Charlemagne except that
A) he was crowned Roman emperor by the pope on Christmas Day in B) he united much of Europe in one Christian empire.
C) his empire remained unified for two hundred years.
D) he promoted a great revival of learning.
Charlemagne's new ideology, which characterized his realm as the "New Israel" (the Chosen People),
A) made no ethnic distinctions within the empire.
B) impeded the development of a secular royal ideology.
C) led to bitter struggles between secular rulers and the church.
D) did all of these.
The missi dominici were
A) a new form of religious book.
B) inspectors who reported to Charlemagne on the conduct of his officials.
C) powerful vassals of the emperor.
D) ambassadors to the Anglo-Saxons.
As part of his approach to scholarship, Charlemagne
A) ordered all cathedrals and monasteries to establish schools.
B) never consciously thought of a "rebirth" or "restoration."
C) favored oral teaching but disapproved of books.
D) focused on the revival of Classical Greek culture.
Charlemagne's reforms included all of the following except
A) the development of a new script.
B) the imposition of the Rule of Saint Benedict on all monasteries.
C) the abolition of all local law codes and the substitution of the Justinian Code.
D) the standardization of worship according to the Roman sacramentary.
The disintegration of the Carolingian Empire was affected by all of the following except
A) entrenched regional diversity.
B) instability caused by creating subkingdoms for royal sons.
C) the Treaty of Verdun, which reunified the empire.
D) new waves of invasion.
Immediately to the east of the Carolingian territories lay
A) a vast empty steppe (prairie) extending to the Ural Mountains.
B) Slavic lands, some of which were converted to Catholicism and some to Orthodoxy.
C) Scandinavia, with a monarchy rising in Denmark under Carolingian pressure.
D) the most northern lands of Islam.
Ninth-century Arab attacks on Europe included all of the following except
A) the conquest of Sicily.
B) the siege of Aachen.
C) a raid on Rome.
D) robbing travelers in the Alps.
The exploits of the Vikings included
A) an alliance with the Muslims against the Franks.
B) settlements in Normandy and Rus.
C) missionary activity rather than destructive raids.
D) the capture of Rome.
Magyars, also know as Hungarians,
A) invaded the Roman Empire under their leader, Attila.
B) created the first major Slavic state: Great Moravia.
C) migrated to eastern Europe from the east and raided as far west as France and Italy.
D) allied with the Vikings and Arabs to bring down the Carolingian Empire.
During the early Middle Ages, European trade
A) declined until it became a purely local activity.
B) came to a standstill because of invasions.
C) included long-distance trade with the Byzantine and Muslim worlds.
D) was carried on only by land routes.
Which of the following is incorrect?
A) in the Latin West towns lost much of their governmental functions and cultural life.
B) the Arabs were great city-builders.
C) Byzantium experienced renewed urbanization after an early decline.
D) as a rule, cities grew as the heavy burden of Roman government disappeared.
The major economic unit in the Frankish kingdom was the
Which of the following can be said of early medieval European women?
A) Women's influence tended to be in the private, not the public, sphere.
B) Women seldom could inherit land if they had brothers.
C) Women were bound to the same hierarchies as men.
D) all of the above
Which of the following does not apply to Europe in the years 900 to 1300?
A) An expanding economy, growing population, and significant urbanization.
B) A major decline in aspects of society, a characteristic of the Dark Ages.
C) Increased tensions between Europeans and their Byzantine and Muslim neighbors.
D) An expansion of the West to include Scandinavia and part of the Slavic world.
Food production increased significantly during the High Middle Ages because
A) the climate became warmer.
B) the horse was used more frequently as a draft animal.
C) a heavier plow was introduced.
D) all of these occurred.
The three-field system meant that
A) every peasant was given three fields.
B) the production of oats for human consumption tripled.
C) one-third of the land was allowed to lie fallow and increase in fertility each year.
D) one field was owned by the peasant, one by the lord, and one by the church.
Which of the following was not a major economic trend in the High Middle Ages?
A) A definite shift of trade route from land to maritime.
B) The gradual withering of the money economy.
C) Significant improvement in mining and quarrying.
D) The growing popularity of agricultural specialization.
The guilds engaged in all of the following except
A) controlling the quality and prices of their members' products.
B) providing social welfare and family benefits.
C) competing intensely in a free-market system.
D) participating in town government.
As the medieval economy developed, moralists
A) refused to change their thinking on such issues as usury.
B) refused to discuss the morality of business practices.
C) did not consider the words of the Bible.
D) began to think that some interest charges could be justified as compensation for risks taken by lenders.
Post-Carolingian states faced the challenge of
A) achieving territorial integrity.
B) complicated relations among powerful interest groups.
C) new ideas about the state and its function.
D) all of these.
As the Saxons made Germany into the pre-eminent power in Europe,
A) they faced the absence of a common German identity.
B) they began a centuries-long German expansion into Slavic lands.
C) they expanded into Italy and gained the title of Emperor.
D) they experienced all of the above.
The investiture controversy
A) involved a fundamental ideological dispute over whether the emperor or the pope was God's agent on earth.
B) weakened the Holy Roman Empire.
C) ended in an agreement that only after the church gave bishops their spiritual authority could kings invest them with secular power.
D) included all of the above.
Political development in northern and central Italy was centered on
A) rural feudal estates.
B) the towns.
C) the Italian royal court.
D) the Italian Federation.
The communes in Italy were unusual and radical because
A) their political authority radiated from the "people" upwards.
B) they rejected the growing materialism of the times.
C) the Catholic Church condemned them as heretical.
D) all of the above were true.
The most striking development in the Catholic Church during the High Middle Ages was
A) doctrinal confusion.
B) the rivalry between monasteries and the church hierarchy.
C) the expansion of its institutions.
D) its increasing subordination to the state.
Which of the following was a coercive power of the pope?
A) Excommunication, which expelled individuals from the church.
B) The interdict, which suspended most religious services in a given territory.
C) The inquisition
D) all of the above
Which of the following does not apply to twelfth-century Sicily?
A) a blend of Byzantine, Norman, and Lombard structures and Muslim influences.
B) King Roger the Great.
C) the flourishing of a typical crusader state.
D) Norman rulers.
Unlike Germany, France
A) had no local territorial powers to obstruct unity.
B) produced a dynasty that enjoyed prestige, a stable succession, and good relations with the church.
C) continued under Carolingian rule throughout the medieval period.
D) remained divided into small territories until the thirteenth century.
Radiating from the Ile-de-France in the north, the Capetian kings expanded their control to the Mediterranean coast by
A) campaigning against local heretics, the Albigensians.
B) expelling the English.
C) crusading against Muslims.
D) negotiating with the towns that resented noble control.
Which of the following does not apply to the "feudal revolution"?
A) decentralization after the passing of the Carolingians.
B) the proliferation of lord-vassal bonds in government and society.
C) major changes in government.
D) slow but continuous expansion of French royal power.
England's period of stable Anglo-Saxon rule was followed immediately by
A) a return to numerous, quarreling states.
B) the decisive defeat of Scandinavian raiders.
C) Danish rule by Swein Forkbeard and then Cnut.
D) the Norman Conquest in 1
William the Conqueror
A) turned most of the estates in England into fiefs.
B) fostered subinfeudation.
C) ordered the compilation of the Domesday Book.
D) was responsible for all of these.
Henry II of England did all of the following except
A) enjoy the loyalty and support of his family.
B) invade Ireland.
C) introduce popular judicial reforms.
D) pursue a quarrel with Saint Thomas Becket that led to the archbishop's murder.
The Magna Carta
A) created a democracy that included noble women.
B) required the English king to respect the rights of feudal lords.
C) temporarily brought peace between France and England.
D) vastly increased the powers of the English king.
National development in the Celtic lands of Ireland, Wales, and Scotland
A) was disrupted by the English.
B) created new independent Celtic states.
C) flourished in the twelfth century.
D) never produced unity in any of the three areas.
The Reconquista was
A) the recovery of northern England from the Danes.
B) the struggle of the Spaniards against the Muslim occupiers of Spain.
C) Portugal's struggle for independence from Spain.
D) the war between Aragon and Navarre.
The Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa was
A) one of the last events in the Crusades.
B) a decisive Spanish victory and turning point of the Reconquista.
C) the conquest of Portugal by the Moors.
D) the victory of Aragon over Castile.
Scandinavian raiders, traders, and settlers helped to expand Europe by
A) settling Iceland.
B) conquering lands that would be called Rus.
C) encouraging maritime commerce.
D) doing all of these.
The Scandinavian countries
A) had been unified kingdoms from pre-Carolingian times.
B) had no kings until the late thirteenth century.
C) developed slowly into unified states under powerful war leaders.
D) never became kingdoms.
All of the following apply to the "Slavic world" except
A) a division of the Slavs into three branches: western, eastern, and southern.
B) a division into Catholic and Orthodox regions.
C) most of the region was never conquered by the Romans.
D) state building was exclusively conducted by "outsiders" such as Germans and Vikings.
The first western Slavic state was
D) Great Moravia.
Kievan Rus was
A) the heart of a trade network extending to Scandinavia, Byzantium, and the caliphate.
B) the first eastern Slavic state.
C) an area that adopted Orthodox Christianity.
D) all of the above.
The Mongol Empire
A) stretched from China to eastern Europe.
B) included the Golden Horde, which dominated Rus.
C) began as a loose coalition of pastoral nomads.
D) did all of the above.
By the end of the eleventh century, Byzantium
A) was at the height of its military power.
B) had broken with the Catholic Church and suffered a major defeat at Manzikert.
C) had successfully allied with the Abbasids against the Seljuk Turks.
D) had recovered control of Palestine but had lost Anatolia.
All of the following are reasons that western Europe embarked on the First Crusade except that
A) the popes wanted to aid Byzantium and heal the schism of the Orthodox Church.
B) western Christians resented Turkish attacks on pilgrims to the Holy Land.
C) Europeans wanted to capture Constantinople.
D) many knights were attracted by the prospects of salvation, glory, and adventure.
After seizing Jerusalem in 1099, the Crusaders
A) created a series of permanent Christian states in the eastern Mediterranean.
B) acknowledged the authority of the Byzantine emperor.
C) gradually lost their conquests to the Muslims.
D) abandoned their militarism in an unprecedented religious awakening.
Which of the following is not a long-term effect of the Crusades?
A) A further, if not fatal, weakening of the Byzantine Empire
B) Significant and permanent gains by women with the departure of a large part of the male population
C) A heightened distrust between European Christians and the Muslim world
D) Increased anti-Semitism in Europe
Which of the following were not included in the threefold division of medieval society?
During the Middle Ages, the social order and social relations
A) became increasingly complex.
B) remained static.
C) became increasingly simple.
D) varied in unpredictable ways.
After the fall of the Carolingian Empire,
A) the church became increasingly hierarchical in organization and outlook.
B) sharp disagreements arose between the primacy of monasteries versus that of the bishops.
C) the church increasingly freed itself of lay domination.
D) all of these happened.
The monastery of Cluny was known for all of the following except
A) that it came under direct papal authority.
B) the prestige of its abbots.
C) the revival of the ascetic eremitic tradition.
D) its support of the idea that the church should be free from lay interference.
Saint Bernard of Clairvaux
A) dominated the religious life of Europe in his lifetime.
B) preached a stricter version of the Benedictine Rule than was followed at Cluny.
C) was the prime mover behind the Cisterscians.
D) all of these.
Which of the following is false?
A) by the middle of the twelfth century, the church came to believe that society should be led by bishops and popes while monks should stay in their monasteries.
B) military orders of monks (such as the Templars) were created to turn violent young men into servants of the church.
C) the clergy's right to officiate at ordeals was confirmed in the fourteenth century.
D) the clergy claimed to intercede for the faithful with God.
As the nobility became better defined as a class,
A) it guaranteed all of its members a high standard of living.
B) vassalage, including fief-holding, became widespread.
C) it soon came to constitute about half the population.
D) it developed an extraordinary uniformity throughout Europe.
Chivalry was originally
A) the idea of courtly love.
B) a literary concept.
C) a code of conduct for warriors.
D) a system of ethics for scholars.
All of the following were developments that adversely affected the position of noblewomen except
A) a growing focus on Eve as the temptress who lost Paradise.
B) the spread of lordship as defined by military service.
C) a masculine chivalric ethos.
D) an emphasis on family and the church's stress on monogamy.
In the tenth and eleventh centuries, rural society was reshaped by all of the following except
A) a consolidation of villages into communities.
B) improved living conditions and legal status for peasants.
C) a tendency for the labor service requirements to decrease.
D) growing tensions among the peasants.
All of the following are true of medieval towns except that
A) they provided job opportunities in many crafts and professions.
B) their social structure was more flexible than elsewhere in society.
C) they had virtually no connection with the countryside.
D) they provided opportunities for women.
Which of the following was not a factor adversely affecting the Jewish population of the West in the High Middle Ages?
A) Growing competition from Christians in an expanding economy
B) The Crusades
C) Jewish support for Christian heretics in Europe
D) The church's focus on proper Christian living
Medieval heretics saw themselves as
A) one of many groups within the true church.
B) secessionists from the true church.
C) the only representatives of the true church.
D) a danger to church and state.
The Cathars or Albigensians believed all of the following except
A) a radical dualism in which everything connected with the flesh is evil.
B) women should have access to leadership roles.
C) the Roman Catholic clergy was rich and corrupt.
Which of the following founded an influential mendicant order that stressed radical poverty, preaching, and service?
B) Saint Francis of Assisi
C) Saint Clare of Assisi
D) Saint Dominic
A) courtly dances.
B) communities of pious laywomen.
D) landless peasants in the Rhineland.
As the intellectual climate improved in the High Middle Ages,
A) logic replaced grammar as the heart of the curriculum.
B) the literate use of the vernacular increased.
C) universities emerged.
D) all of these happened.
All of the following refer to canon law except
A) canon law declined because of the spiritual revival associated with the rise of the Franciscans and Dominicans.
B) canon law was church law.
C) the greatest medieval compilation of canon law was the Decretum.
D) canon law reflected a growing concern for precise rules and a growing number of disputes.
As the intellectual legacy of the Greco-Roman world began to be recovered,
A) Europeans owed a growing debt to Islamic intellectuals.
B) questions about the relationship of faith and reason became a major concern.
C) conservatives such as Bernard of Clairvaux and Hildegard of Bingen strongly objected.
D) all of these were true.
In the debate between realism and nominalism,
A) realism referred to the belief that only ideas are fully real.
B) nominalism meant the low, almost negligible, importance of Scripture.
C) realism referred to the belief that only the physical world is truly real.
D) nominalism was consistent with Plato's philosophy.
The greatest of the Scholastics was
A) Gerbert of Aurillac.
D) Saint Thomas Aquinas.
Which of the following cannot be associated with medieval universities?
A) students were reputed to be noisy, quarrelsome, prone to drinking, and fond of prostitutes.
B) the basic method of teaching was the recitation of passages from authoritative texts followed by commentary.
C) a university education very seldom produced original thinkers.
D) the bachelor's degree licensed a person to teach but a master's was required to teach at a university.
The two vernacular classics, Beowulf and the Song of Roland,
A) exemplified the new courtly love literature.
B) were two of the greatest achievements of English literature.
C) dealt with personal hopes, fears, and motivations.
D) reflected a male chivalric world that almost totally excluded women.
The new literary form, the romance, combined a complex narrative with
A) powerful and conflicting emotional and moral dilemmas.
B) a strong message of Christian love and asceticism.
C) the basic developments in Scholasticism.
D) the inevitable happy ending.
The author of The Divine Comedy is
B) Chretien de Troyes.
D) Marie de France.
Romanesque architecture includes all the following except
A) the barrel vault.
B) pointed arches and stained glass.
C) thick walls.
D) greater internal height than Roman and Carolingian buildings.
A) attempted to capture a dark serenity.
B) sought a verticality and translucency in which stone surfaces seemed to disappear.
C) intended to impress by its accurate reproduction of Greco-Roman styles.
D) did all of the above.
The crises of the late Middle Ages
A) led to a dramatic economic, social, and political recovery in the fifteenth century and the cultural ferment of the Renaissance.
B) were mainly economic and demographic.
C) resulted in an unprecedented strengthening of the church and a decline in the power of states.
D) led to a new Dark Ages.
The Babylonian Captivity of the papacy resulted from
A) the attempts to limit the power of the pope within France.
B) the attempt by the church to free itself from Roman decadence.
C) the Muslim capture of Jerusalem and the last crusader state.
D) the Hundred Years' War.
The Great Schism included all of the following except
A) two and eventually three popes ruling simultaneously.
B) the increasing power of church councils.
C) doctrinal causes.
D) resolution only with the pressure of the German emperor.
Radical conciliarists held that
A) the authority of a general council was greater than the pope's.
B) the kings of Europe should run the church.
C) popes should be elected by all Christians.
D) the church should be governed by councils, not by popes.
All of the following apply to the Hussites except
A) they were followers of Jan Hus, a Czech executed for heresy.
B) they demanded, among other reforms, lay consumption of the bread and wine during the sacrament of Communion.
C) they successfully resisted a series of military campaigns by the emperor and reached a compromise with the church.
D) their movement ended with defeat at the Council of Constance.
Postschism popes found that their revenues and powers were
A) as great as they had ever been.
B) considerably restricted through reform measures and the attitudes of lay rulers.
C) completely abolished.
D) limited to Avignon.
The Hundred Years' War was caused by all of the following except
A) the prohibition of female succession to the French throne.
B) English claims to French territories.
C) English superiority in population and wealth.
D) the policies of Edward III.
In the last phase of the Hundred Years' War, Joan of Arc
A) failed to accomplish anything significant.
B) captured Paris before returning to her family.
C) was ransomed by a grateful Charles VII after her capture.
D) led French troops to victory at OrlEans and Charles to his coronation at Reims.
By the late thirteenth century political power in the towns of urbanized northern Italy was divided among all of the following except
A) the rural nobility ascendant in most of Europe.
B) the old urban nobility.
C) wealthy merchants.
D) the popolo (modest artisans and merchants).
The revolutionary Ciompi were
A) a powerful Florentine family.
B) disgruntled conciliarists.
C) unskilled workers in Florence's woolen industry.
D) mercenaries in the Italian Wars.
By the end of the fifteenth century, most of the city-states of Italy
A) were independent republics.
B) had united into a powerful national state.
C) had fallen under the control of powerful families or of foreign powers.
D) were part of the Holy Roman Empire.
In the decades immediately preceding the Black Death, Europe experienced
B) a significant cooling of the climate.
C) famine and social unrest.
D) all of these.
The Black Death
A) was brought to Europe by Italian merchants traveling from the Black Sea.
B) may actually have been anthrax or a "hemorrhagic plague" similar to Ebola.
C) continued to return to Europe periodically after its first attack.
D) all of these.
During the years of the Black Death, the flagellants were
A) a group of inquisitors ferreting out the causes of the disease.
B) French officials who punished criminals.
C) foods believed to have caused the disease.
D) groups of self-scourging penitents originating in Hungary.
The aftermath of the Black Death brought all of the following changes to the European economy except
A) a shift of trade and manufacture from Italy to northern Europe.
B) new entrepreneurial opportunities in a fundamentally conservative society.
C) a permanent improvement in the economic status of women.
D) the emergence of Poland and eastern Germany as major grain exporters.
In the fourteenth century, revolts occurred
A) against both rural and urban authorities.
B) only in the countryside.
C) only in areas seeking independence from the Holy Roman Empire.
D) in most countries except England.
France quickly recovered after the Hundred Years' War because the king
A) created Europe's first standing army.
B) attracted the nobility to the royal court.
C) created new law courts.
D) did all of these.
The result of the Battle of Bosworth Field was
A) the triumph of Richard III.
B) the accession of Henry VII, first ruler of the new Tudor dynasty.
C) government by a coalition of barons.
D) the regency of the archbishop of Canterbury.
In the late Middle Ages the Scandinavian countries
A) had councils of leading landowners to limit royal power.
B) had a substantial class of free peasants who were represented in popular assemblies.
C) were closely tied linguistically, socially, and economically.
D) all of these.
Which of the following did not result from the Teutonic Knights' push to the east?
A) Germanization of the lands of eastern Europe not controlled by the Mongols.
B) the dynastic union between Poland and Lithuania.
C) a major defeat of the Teutonic Knights at the Battle of Tannenberg.
D) containment by Poland-Lithuania.
In the late Middle Ages, Poland and Lithuania
A) were much more closely tied to western Catholic Europe than to the Orthodox East.
B) developed civil rights for their nobilities that included freedom from arbitrary arrest and imprisonment.
C) were developing a nobility with a common language and culture.
D) all of these
Which of the following did not contribute to the rise of Moscow?
A) the move of the headquarters of the Russian Orthodox Church to Moscow.
B) the conquest of Novgorod.
C) the policy of never cooperating with the Tatars.
D) the claim that Moscow had become the new Rome after the fall of Constantinople.
After conquering Constantinople in 1453, the Ottoman Turks did all of the following except
A) restore the prosperity of the city, making it the largest in Europe.
B) claim to be heirs to Byzantine and ancient imperial traditions.
C) continue to push into Europe while neglecting their lands in the Middle East.
D) welcome Sephardic Jews from Spain and Portugal.
The Janissaries were
A) Christian heretics who sought refuge in the Ottoman Empire.
B) the sultan's crack troops, originally kidnapped Christians trained to be intensely Turkish and Islamic.
C) Ottoman Turk aristocrats.
D) Muslim "heretics" at odds with the sultan.
The Spanish kingdoms of Aragon and Castile
A) were barely distinguishable from one another.
B) were never united.
C) differed only in geography.
D) differed in size, political outlook, economy, and foreign relations.
The marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella led to all of the following except
A) a determination to create Catholic religious uniformity.
B) marriage alliances with the Habsburg and Tudor families.
C) a rapid internal integration of Spain.
D) the conquest of Granada, the last Muslim stronghold in Spain.
Which best describes the Holy Roman Empire in the late Middle Ages?
A) a loose collection of states without a common hereditary monarchy, legal system, or coinage.
B) a highly centralized, expansionist state.
C) a stable empire whose center of power gradually shifted to the southwest.
D) the emerging economic powerhouse of Europe.
The movement called the Renaissance included all of the following except
A) a cultural revival intended to revive Classical and early Christian traditions.
B) origins in northern Italy.
C) major advances in the treatment and diagnosis of disease.
D) expansion to the entire West, including Hungary, Poland, and Scandinavia.
In humanism, the center of intellectual life was
A) the Bible, the writings of Church Fathers such as Augustine, and recent papal encyclicals.
B) the new scientific thought best exemplified by da Vinci.
C) the pursuit of profit in the expanding commercial economy.
D) poetry, history, and rhetoric based on ancient Greek and Roman forms and values.
Petrarch was a
A) Scholastic philosopher.
B) monk with a zeal for reform.
C) ruler of a small but elegant commune.
D) Classical scholar with an exalted idea of ancient Roman values.
Civic humanists tended to be
A) poor university students living in cities.
B) intellectuals dedicated to public life and the exaltation of their own cities.
C) cynical despots with a veneer of culture.
D) scholars who despised the urban life of their own time.
Which best describes the Italian humanist attitude toward women?
A) because of their primitive, volatile nature, women should avoid all exposure to scholarship.
B) women can be educated but only in a passive way; they can be patrons of scholarship but not its producers.
C) since Christianity taught that all are children of God and Roman Stoics believed that both women and men possess reason, women should have the same educational opportunities as men.
D) women have a better appreciation for subtlety; hence, they are better qualified to be scholars than men.
In his On the Donation of Constantine, Valla proved that
A) Emperor Constantine had, in fact, given the pope the western half of the Roman Empire to rule.
B) while the document was authentic, spiritual and legal reasons made it invalid.
C) the language in which the document was written indicated it was an eighth-century forgery.
D) the matter of the document's authenticity is irrelevant.
The work of Ficino was based on
A) the philosophy of Plato.
B) newly discovered works of Aristotle.
C) the works of Thomas Aquinas.
D) the historical books of Herodotus and Thucydides.
Pico della Miroandola believed that
A) man's freedom to choose who he will become meant that human beings surpass angels in dignity.
B) all philosophies contained some truth.
C) an original, unified, and divine illumination preceded even Plato.
D) all of these were true.
Italian humanists tended to believe that realities, such as government, were essentially static and that if change occurred it was by chance (fortun
A) . Most believed that fortuna could only be countered by
A) like the humanists, that educated people will choose virtue instead of vice.
B) like Petrarch, that rulers should practice Christian virtues.
C) that government must be based on power and that the end justifies the means.
D) that Classical learning would create good rulers and good citizens.
The greatest innovator of early Renaissance painting who emphasized naturalism was
C) Lorenzo de Medici.
The architectural work of Brunelleschi
A) built on the work of Suger.
B) was based on his study of Classical buildings.
C) resembled no style ever used in the past.
D) sought for greater height than that of the Gothic cathedrals.
Renaissance art developed a feature never achieved in Classical Antiquity, that is,
B) Classical forms and proportions.
C) linear perspective.
Leonardo da Vinci was known for
A) abstract painting and nonfigurative sculpture.
B) great literary expertise and humanist accomplishments.
C) construction of the first successful airplanes and submarines.
D) chiaroscuro painting and analytical observation.
All of the following are true of Michelangelo except that he
A) rejected Platonism as irreligious.
B) sculpted a great statue of David.
C) was a supporter of Florentine republicanism.
D) painted the Sistine Chapel.
In which two ways did northern art change in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries?
A) Religious topics were abandoned and linear perspective was adopted.
B) Austerity and an emphasis on vertical lines gave way to complexity and emotion while ornate, vivid painting was replaced by an emphasis on depth.
C) It was supplanted by the Italian style and became a business.
D) Religious topics were abandoned and aerial perspective was adopted.
The most famous northern artist who adopted Italian techniques was
Which of the following does not describe the role of art during the Renaissance?
B) A sign of status
C) Social criticism
D) Communication of social, political, and spiritual values
Humanists outside of Italy were
A) more absorbed in Roman history than the Italians.
B) exclusively concerned with local interests.
C) more interested in religious reform.
D) completely uninterested in the past.
The spread of humanist culture was greatly aided by
A) the use of printing.
B) the growth of agnosticism and atheism.
C) the preaching of missionaries.
D) the use of a new common language, French.
In The Book of the City of Ladies, Christine de Pizan
A) addressed the querelle des femmes.
B) stated that women appeared inferior because their education was inferior.
C) stated that male critics could be countered by reason, prudence, and justice.
D) did all of these.
The invention of movable type by Gutenberg resulted in all of the following except
A) the rise of print shops as centers of culture and communication.
B) the creation of agreed-upon standard editions.
C) the first mass production of playing cards and woodcuts.
D) improved study of rare works.
The Renaissance had a significant impact on all of the following except
The northern Renaissance's attempt to blend humanism and religion included
A) the development of the Polyglot ("many-tongued") Bible.
B) the rediscovery of early Christian authors.
C) the belief that all philosophies and religions contained universal truths.
D) all of these.
All of the following are true of Sir Thomas More except that he was
A) a Dominican friar.
B) the author of Utopia.
C) a friend of Erasmus.
D) executed by Henry VIII.
The "Prince of Humanists," Erasmus, developed a "Philosophy of Christ" that
A) held that the true essence of Christianity was the life and actions of Christ and that each person was good and rational.
B) condemned all non-Christian philosophies as false but also rejected church authority.
C) was officially adopted as part of the Reformation.
D) was officially adopted by the Catholic Church.
As the Renaissance matured,
A) secular rulers used it to help define and celebrate their authority.
B) it was blended with religion in a spectacular manner by the popes.
C) it helped to transform the medieval knight into a gentleman.
D) all of these happened.
In The Book of the Courtier, Castiglione advised all of the following except
A) that women should organize a court's discussions.
B) that grace was inborn in every nobleman and needed to be drawn out.
C) that martial and religious values were no longer fashionable.
D) that true gentlemen should have an unstudied naturalness.
In the fourteenth century, Europeans
A) traded across Muslim and Mongol lands as far as China.
B) were aware of the African kingdoms of the Niger Delta.
C) had lost their settlements in Newfoundland and Greenland but continued to fish off the coast of North America.
D) did all of these.
Technical innovations that made sailing easier in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries included
A) a rudimentary form of steam engine.
B) mechanical clocks.
C) the fly compass and the astrolabe.
D) better oars.
The works read by Europeans dealing with distant lands included all of the following except
A) authors from Late Antiquity.
B) authentic letters from Prester John.
C) the travel book of Sir John Mandeville.
D) the Travels of Marco Polo.
Caravan routes and trade networks were closed to Europeans in the fourteenth century because of
A) conversion of the Mongols to Islam and the rise of the Ottomans.
B) the Black Death.
C) a series of earthquakes in central Asia that closed the roads.
D) the refusal of European rulers to allow merchants to travel to the East.
Portuguese seamen were the first Europeans to master the navigation of the
B) South Atlantic, along the west coast of Africa.
C) North Atlantic, as far as Iceland.
D) west coast of Ireland.
As new European states expanded overseas, they, like the Portuguese,
A) created a network of isolated naval and trading stations.
B) created substantial colonies.
C) used slaves to produce commercially.
D) did all of these.
Late medieval explorers hoped to find
B) gold and Christian allies against the Turks.
C) new species of animals.
D) Atlantic fishing areas.
Which were the first Europeans to reach India by sea?
A) the Italians.
B) the Spanish.
C) the Portuguese.
D) the English.
Which of the following describes the situation in India and the Indian Ocean as European traders first penetrated the region?
A) The main products traded were cottons, silks, and spices.
B) The Chinese had recently discontinued ambitious expeditions into the area.
C) Muslim descendants of Jenghiz Khan, the Moguls, were expanding their control of India.
D) all of these
Portugal's commercial empire in the East was based
A) on fortified, strategically placed naval bases.
B) on large territorial colonies.
C) solely on a network of agreements with local governments and merchants.
D) on an alliance with the Turks and their Arab allies.
Which event coincided with the beginning of Spain's overseas exploration?
A) the unification of the entire Iberian peninsula under the Spanish crown.
B) the final event in the Reconquista, the fall of Muslim Granada.
C) the marriage of Isabella and Ferdinand.
D) the election of a Spanish pope.
By sailing west, Columbus hoped to find
A) Japan, gold, and potential Christians.
B) the mythical continent of Atlantis.
C) Atlantic islands suitable for Spanish colonization.
D) new types of vegetables and fruits.
The Spanish initially considered the native population of the "West Indies," the Tainos, to be
A) vicious savages who must be exterminated.
B) an advanced civilization that brought awe and fear.
C) a gentle, compliant, virtuous people who would make good Christians.
D) a major threat.
The conclusion that Columbus had reached a new continent instead of Asia was drawn by
B) Ferdinand and Isabella.
C) Amerigo Vespucci.
D) Martin Waldseemüller.
Because of the Treaty of Tordesillas, Portugal
A) was excluded from any rights in the Americas.
B) was allowed to explore North America.
C) was forced to give half of its colonial revenues to the Spanish crown.
D) unwittingly gained rights to Brazil.
Ferdinand Magellan is known for
A) his triumphant return to Europe after circumnavigating the globe.
B) failing to get past Tierra del Fuego.
C) establishing routes by which ships could sail around the world.
D) being the first European to reach the Pacific Ocean by sailing west.
As Spain penetrated into the New World,
A) it followed the Portuguese model of a "trade-post empire".
B) it colonized and remade the lands it seized.
C) it immediately came into conflict with France and England.
D) its power and position in Europe waned.
Before European colonization, the peoples of the Americas
A) had mostly migrated from the Eurasian landmass.
B) had developed agriculture independently about 3000 B.C.
C) had created complex societies.
D) had done all of these.
All of the following statements are true of the Aztecs except that
A) they took over an existing civilization in the Valley of Mexico.
B) their capital was a large and beautiful city with a highly developed trade network.
C) they waged almost constant war and practiced human sacrifice on a massive scale.
D) they lived in peace with their neighbors.
Inca civilization included all of the following elements except that they
A) continually demanded more taxes from their subjects.
B) lagged in irrigation and bridge-building.
C) built thousands of miles of roads.
D) were efficient soldiers and administrators.
A) one of the conquerors of Mexico.
B) an Aztec official responsible for human sacrifices.
C) one of the Aztec gods.
D) the mistress and interpreter of CortEs.
Although greatly outnumbered by the Aztecs, the Spanish
A) were able to negotiate a settlement with Moctezuma.
B) escaped with their lives and retreated to the coast.
C) found numerous allies among tribes whose people had been taken for Aztec sacrifices.
D) defeated the Aztecs but did not establish a permanent colony in Mexico.
After the Spanish conquest, the lands of the former Inca Empire
A) provided vast amounts of gold and silver for the Spanish crown.
B) experienced resistance to foreign rule till the 1570s.
C) were reoriented away from the mountains to the coast.
D) all of these.
Which of the following was not true of the Spanish colonial administration in the New World?
A) Enslavement of all Indians and confiscation of all Indian land
B) The Spanish monarch's promotion of a broad-based debate about the rights of Amerindians and religious conversion
C) Centralized supervision by the Council of the Indies
D) Division of the New World into two viceroyalties: New Spain and Peru
As the Spanish created a new economy in the New World, which of the following did not occur?
A) The encomienda, despite original intentions, made natives into virtual slaves.
B) The Western Hemisphere experienced a dramatic population decline.
C) Slaves from Africa were imported in large numbers.
D) The import of New World silver into Europe caused alarming deflation.
Catholic missionaries, especially BartolomE de Las Casas, argued that the Indians
A) were rational human beings and should be protected from exploitation.
B) should be first enslaved, then converted.
C) were subhuman creatures who should nevertheless be treated decently.
D) should be wiped out and their place taken by Spaniards.
The Columbian Exchange was
A) the new foreign exchange rate based on Peruvian silver.
B) the spread of syphilis to the New World, and of smallpox and measles from the New World to the Old.
C) the interchange of diseases, plants, animals, and some cultural elements between the Old and New Worlds.
D) the division of the American colonies between Spain and Portugal.
Among the domestic animals brought from Europe that produced the greatest change in the New World were
A) pet dogs and cats.
B) ducks and geese.
D) cattle and horses.
The European diet was changed by American foods such as
A) wheat and rye.
B) barley and oats.
C) corn, potatoes, and tomatoes.
D) oranges and lemons.
Which of the following did not aid in the Spanish transformation of New World culture?
A) The belief by both the conquerors and the conquered that the changes had divine approval
B) The adaptation of old pagan shrines to Christian worship
C) The early establishment of universities
D) Spanish respect for native culture
The new Christian churches of the Reformation
A) freed the individual from all religious, institutional controls.
B) replaced traditional controls over individuals with new traditions of control.
C) healed the split between Catholics and the Orthodox.
D) preached complete religious freedom.
The founder of the Reformation, Martin Luther, originally was
A) a famous Catholic cardinal.
B) an obscure German theology professor, deeply troubled about his own salvation.
C) the author of The Institutes of the Christian Religion, confident of his own "election".
D) a revolutionary Anabaptist.
A) broke the unity of Western Christianity.
B) believed that religious authority derived from the Bible.
C) believed they were restoring Christianity to its original form.
D) did all of these.
William of Ockham and his followers
A) led a revival of Thomistic philosophy.
B) rejected the concept of universal ideas and laws.
C) preached Lutheranism throughout Europe.
D) led a revolt in Münster.
The feast of Corpus Christi honors
A) the resurrection of Christ.
B) leaders of civic associations.
C) the body and blood of Christ in the Holy Eucharist.
D) the assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary.
In the late Middle Ages,
A) some women with a reputation for sanctity exercised a profound moral authority in society.
B) convents probably outnumbered monasteries.
C) independent communities of religious women, the Beguines, were suspected of heresy.
D) all of these were true.
All of the following are true of the Brothers and Sisters of the Common Life except that
A) they were a sect of flagellants that organized following the Black Death.
B) they were founded by Geert Groote.
C) they copied books and taught in schools.
D) their style of spirituality, the devotio moderna, is embodied by Thomas à Kempis's The Imitation of Christ.
1Although Luther first criticized the abuse of selling indulgences, he believed indulgences were unnecessary in the first place because
A) there is no such thing as sin.
B) no sin can be forgiven.
C) only faith is necessary for salvation.
D) salvation is impossible.
Luther rejected Catholic teaching on
A) the Ten Commandments.
B) the priesthood and the interpretation of Scripture.
Pope Leo X and Emperor Charles V
A) adopted Luther's ideas with growing enthusiasm.
B) encouraged Luther to continue to teach.
C) criticized Luther's enemies.
D) excommunicated Luther and placed him under imperial ban.
City councils and town governments in German-speaking regions
A) played an important role in imposing Lutheranism and organizing the new local churches.
B) uniformly resisted the new religion.
C) were indifferent to Lutheran preaching.
D) supported Calvin rather than Luther.
Unlike Luther, Zwingli believed
A) that no religious change was necessary.
B) all the teachings of the Catholic Church.
C) that Christ was only spiritually, and not physically, present in Holy Communion.
D) that religious practices should be reformed according to the Bible.
All of the following are true of the German peasants' revolt except that
A) the peasants argued against taxes and tithes because they were not mentioned in the Bible.
B) hundreds of thousands of people took part in violent revolts against their overlords.
C) Luther at first was sympathetic to the peasants, then urged their destruction as "mad dogs".
D) Luther supported the peasants to the end.
Among the differences between Luther and Calvin was the latter's conviction that
A) salvation comes through God's grace.
B) progressive sanctification exists and requires government enforcement.
C) freedom of the Christian meant freedom from all social, political, and economic constraints.
D) human nature is evil at birth.
Calvin's emphasis on predestination resulted in all of the following beliefs except that
A) good works are a necessary sign of election.
B) a well-ordered society is a "sign of divine benevolence".
C) wealth accumulated in business was a sign of God's favor.
D) religious art was a sign of divine presence.
The fate of Servetus in Calvin's Geneva shows that reformers
A) strictly followed Jesus's imperative not to judge others.
B) believed that open dialogue could resolve religious differences.
C) could ruthlessly execute other reformers with whom they disagreed.
D) exceeded Catholics in piety, meekness, and charity toward others.
The Anabaptist movement included
A) mandatory adult baptism.
B) a rejection of "the Abomination," that is, unreformed civil society.
C) the abolition of property and the practice of polygamy in the establishment of a "Kingdom of Righteousness."
D) all of these.
Which of the following challenges was not an obstacle to Emperor Charles V's attempt to create a universal empire?
A) The unprecedented nature of the concept
B) Growing religious divisions
C) Rivalry with the Valois kings of France and the Ottoman Turks
D) A lack of political centralization
After prolonged conflict and war, the Peace of Augsburg (1555)
A) granted toleration to all sects.
B) made Catholicism the religion of the whole empire.
C) was signed after Luther's execution.
D) provided that princes could choose either Catholicism or Lutheranism for their territories.
Initially dubbed "defender of the faith" for his hostility to Luther, Henry VIII eventually broke with the Catholic Church because
A) his wife, Catherine, wanted an annulment so she could marry someone else.
B) he became a convinced Lutheran.
C) the pope excommunicated him for adultery.
D) he was determined to remarry despite papal refusal for an annulment.
While little changed in beliefs and practices under Henry VIII, his son, Edward VI, oversaw
A) the legalization of clerical marriage.
B) the combining of Protestant ideas with medieval prayers in the new Book of Common Prayer.
C) the completion of the "dissolution of the monasteries."
D) all of these.
Under Queen Mary,
A) Protestantism continued to gain power in England.
B) Catholics were persecuted.
C) most people quickly returned to Catholic practices.
D) Catholicism triumphed permanently because her reign was so long.
The Elizabethan Settlement
A) in many ways formed a "middle way" between Protestantism and Catholicism.
B) included the guarantee that Elizabeth I would remain unmarried.
C) fully satisfied Protestant reformers.
D) provided for complete religious freedom.
Which of the following best describes the religious situation in France in the mid-sixteenth century?
A) the stage was set for destructive factional struggles over religion and political power.
B) Protestantism was making significant gains on all levels of French society.
C) religious concessions in the Middles Ages had led to nearly complete secularization of French society.
D) there were growing demands to return the papacy to Avignon.
The Scandinavian countries became Protestant as a result of
A) grass-roots action inspired by commercial contacts with Germans.
B) prolonged military struggles.
C) royal action.
D) internal reform guided by disgruntled clergy.
Eastern European countries that were part of the West (Poland-Lithuania and Hungary)
A) enjoyed the highest religious diversity and tolerance of the time.
B) were mainly Orthodox and Muslim.
C) seemed impervious to the Reformation..
D) established state churches.
In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries both Catholicism and Protestantism
A) changed the nature of Christianity and its place in public life from what it had been in the Middle Ages.
B) became more concerned with the personal than with the communal.
C) developed increasingly precise and rigid doctrines.
D) did all of these.
On the eve of the Reformation,
A) Catholics had no interest in correcting abuses in the church.
B) the popes opposed all suggestions for reforms.
C) members of both clergy and laity had long been working for reforms within the Catholic Church.
D) no new religious orders had been founded for centuries.
What role did mysticism play in sixteenth-century Catholicism?
A) it increasingly came to be identified with Protestantism.
B) the Catholic Church continued to embrace it as a legitimate form of religious experience.
C) mysticism almost disappeared during the Counter-Reformation.
D) it had already disappeared during the Renaissance.
The Society of Jesus was all of the following except
A) a disciplined and effective Catholic reforming order.
B) famous for its work in education of the laity.
C) a military order dedicated to fighting the Turks.
D) successful in reconverting many regions from Protestantism.
The Council of Trent, which helped to define Catholicism in the following four hundred years,
A) abandoned previous Catholic teaching.
B) reiterated and clarified traditional Catholic teaching and mandated many reforms.
C) attempted no reforms.
D) adopted some Lutheran doctrines.
Hardening denominational divisions became apparent
A) in the Catholic development of a new exuberant artistic style, the baroque.
B) in the elimination of all art from Reformed (Calvinist) churches.
C) in the emphasis on congregational singing and the preservation of statuary in Lutheran churches.
D) in all of the above.
In their treatment of the internal lives of individuals, the Catholic and Protestant Churches
A) differed radically; only Protestant churches were concerned with the internal life of the individual.
B) differed radically; Protestants affirmed the total freedom of the individual from outside control.
C) were quite similar; for both the internal life of the individual became a religious concern regulated by the government.
D) were quite similar; in both cases, sins of passion, such as sex and gluttony, became less serious than greed and usury.
The Reformation and Counter-Reformation resulted in
A) an outpouring of Christian love as people of different denominations celebrated the diversity of their faiths.
B) widespread and prolonged wars and civil disorder combined with economic dislocation.
C) tensions that rarely resulted in violence.
D) an almost universal separation of church and state.
While the Spanish Empire ruled much of the New World and many wealthy territories in Europe, it met its match in the Netherlands, where
A) nobles, towns, and provinces tried to safeguard remnants of medieval autonomy.
B) religious divisions exacerbated political tensions.
C) economic prosperity and strain compounded problems of central authority.
D) all of these were true.
Heavy-handed Spanish rule in the Netherlands eventually
A) led to the splitting of the Netherlands and the emergence of the United Provinces in the north.
B) increased tensions between England and Spain.
C) taught Philip which mistakes to avoid in his other restless provinces.
D) did all of these.
All of the following are true about the sending of the Armada to invade England except that
A) the Spanish had the advantage in arms and gunners.
B) Philip was moved to attempt the invasion when Elizabeth executed Mary, Queen of Scots.
C) the tides and currents were in favor of the English.
D) logistical problems prevented the launching of a Spanish invasion force from the Netherlands.
The Turkish naval advance in the Mediterranean
A) resulted in the Turkish conquest of southern Italy.
B) was decisively halted at the Battle of Lepanto in 1C) was unopposed by the West.
D) caused Spain to pay money to the sultan to avoid a Turkish invasion.
By the mid-seventeenth century Spain had lost its pre-eminence in Europe for all of the following reasons except
A) declining shipments of silver from America.
B) the loss of the United Provinces and the failed attempt to permanently annex Portugal.
C) the patent incompetence of its leaders.
D) growing upheaval in its Italian possessions.
The French religious wars were precipitated by all of the following except
A) traditional rivalry with the English.
B) a large degree of independence exercised by the nobility, including the right to wage private wars.
C) the failure of the Colloquy of Poissy to reconcile the Catholics and the Huguenots.
D) simmering conflicts among Catholic and Protestant nobles and townspeople.
The Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre
A) began the Thirty Years' War.
B) eliminated the Protestant movement in France.
C) showed the degree to which religious differences had strained the fabric of community life.
D) was the direct result of the Edict of Nantes.
The Protestant Bourbon Prince of Navarre became King Henry IV
A) after he converted to Catholicism.
B) with the support of the nobility, who were gradually being reconciled to the power of the state.
C) and issued the Edict of Nantes, which extended royal tolerance to the Huguenots.
D) all of the above
The consolidation of royal authority in France during the first half of the seventeenth century
A) involved a nibbling away at local self-government and control of taxation.
B) resulted to a large degree from the efforts of the royal ministers, Sully and Richelieu.
C) included the creation of the office of intendant.
D) did all of the above.
In the second half of the sixteenth century, England
A) was torn by civil war.
B) witnessed the overthrow of Elizabeth I by Mary Tudor.
C) experienced persecution of Catholics and the rise of Puritan influence.
D) suffered a major defeat by Spain in
During the reign of Elizabeth, the Irish encountered
A) success in their struggle for autonomy.
B) the mild and tolerant rule of English governors.
C) religious persecution, confiscation of their land, and brutal suppression by the English.
D) lack of foreign interference in their affairs.
Among the domestic problems of the reign of James I were
A) disunity among Protestants and lack of hostility to Catholics.
B) only minor difficulties, because of his enormous popularity.
C) corruption at court and increased financial trouble.
D) renewed foreign invasion.
Prior to the English civil war, Charles I
A) attempted to fashion the Church of England into an instrument that would reflect and justify royal power.
B) pursued a peaceful foreign policy in order to expand his authority at home.
C) executed the unpopular Archbishop Laud.
D) did all of these.
Arminianism held that
A) sacraments and religious ritual should be abolished.
B) God's grace can be merited by human beings.
C) Calvinism was not rigorous enough on predestination.
D) only Catholicism can be traced to the time of Christ and the apostles.
The Petition of Rights (1528)
A) sought to guarantee freedom of worship for both Catholics and Lutherans in the Holy Roman Empire.
B) used conservative arguments to expand parliamentary participation in the English government.
C) was the first stirring of Protestantism in France.
D) none of the above.
In the first half of the seventeenth century, the dominant power in northeast Europe was
B) the Holy Roman Empire.
D) the Russian Empire.
In the Holy Roman Empire, no provision had been made in the Peace of Augsburg for
C) the authority of rulers in religious matters.
All of the following contributed to the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War except
A) resurgent Catholicism emboldened, in part, by the Jesuits.
B) a strongly independent religious tradition in Czech lands.
C) a new emperor who lacked the tolerant attitudes of his predecessor.
D) all of these contributed to the outbreak of the war.
To the religious tensions that contributed to the Thirty Years' War were added the factor(s) of
A) foreign intervention and the political ambitions of rulers within the empire.
B) widespread peasants' and workers' revolts.
C) invasion by papal troops.
D) the Turkish sieges of Vienna, Prague, and Augsburg.
The unprecedented devastation caused by the Thirty Years' War was due to
A) new weapons of mass destruction.
B) earthquakes and hurricanes as well as fighting.
C) new military tactics as well as siege warfare.
D) decisions of the princes to exterminate the peasants.
The most important political consequences of the Thirty Years' War included
A) an increase in the power of the duke of Bavaria.
B) France's territorial gains.
C) the virtual autonomy of the major imperial states and the growing strength of Habsburg hereditary lands.
D) Sweden's acquisition of Baltic territory.
In the seventeenth century, southeastern Europe was ruled by
A) the Hapsburgs.
B) the Ottomans, who tended to respect the cultural and religious diversity of their Christian subjects.
C) the Ottomans, who tried to impose Islam.
D) a series of tiny, quarreling states.
Muscovite Russia developed an empire
A) by expanding into Rus and eastward into Tatar states.
B) with an autocratic form of government.
C) in part, by having collected tribute for Mongol overlords.
D) all of these
Which of the following cannot be attributed to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries?
A) a dynastic union from the fourteenth century made into a closer union of political institutions in the sixteenth century.
B) a burgeoning Baltic trade in which the country became a major source of grain for Dutch cities and other cities further west.
C) a national parliament and local assemblies dominated by the nobility.
D) anarchy, civil war, and foreign invasion.
The price revolution of the sixteenth century was apparently caused by
A) population pressures and the influx on New World silver.
B) the lingering effects of the Black Death and its periodic return.
C) the new commercial ethos fostered, in part, by Calvinism.
D) religious wars.
Which is not generally considered to be an effect of the price revolution?
A) A 50 to 100 percent rise in the grain price between 1550 and 160B) The collapse of serfdom throughout Europe
C) A growing symbiosis between monarchy and nobility
D) A new class of entrepreneurial landowners
Economic change in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries transformed the character of city governments by
A) increasing the power of privileged landed families.
B) eliminating guild control of many cities.
C) tying town interests more closely to royal interests.
D) doing all of these.
The new organization of cloth production included all of the following except
A) large-scale mechanization.
B) the bypassing of guild production.
C) the employment of urban wage earners and rural pieceworkers.
D) changing power relationships within guilds.
Economic changes in this period
A) drastically reduced the economic power of women.
B) increased economic stratification in the countryside.
C) increased the ranks of landless peasants in western Europe and of serfs in eastern Europe.
D) did all of these.
The role of common people in the violence of the period can best be described as
A) rare; peasants only resorted to violence when outsiders threatened their communities.
B) very widespread; ordinary people commonly participated in the wars and in violence against enemies, such as heretics, that they perceived to be in their midst.
C) sporadic; seldom did common people resort to violence; when they did, there seemed to be no pattern to their behavior.
D) always led by outsiders such a reformer preacher or royal officials.
Which of the following is not true of the increasing poverty of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries?
A) riots and revolts were a frequent result.
B) the Reformation renewed Christian ideals of poverty.
C) the poverty came to be seen as a social problem; many of the poor were forced into almshouses and poorhouses.
D) begging was often outlawed but never eliminated.
The increased persecution of witches was due to
A) the new association of witchcraft with heresy.
B) desperate attempts of local communities to deal with crises.
C) increased poverty.
D) all of these.
Cervantes' Don Quixote
A) was the oral composition of an illiterate man.
B) rejected traditional prose styles.
C) was an experimental drama.
D) reflected both oral and literate culture.
A novel feature of Montaigne's work was
A) long treatises in support of the Huguenots.
B) a great legal codification.
C) the essay form, in which he analyzed a great variety of subjects.
D) the fact that he had time to produce it, since he was a hard-working peasant.
In his plays, Shakespeare was interested in presenting
A) everything but political ideas.
B) only stories drawn from Classical myths.
C) whatever glorified his current patron.
D) many themes, including the rights of subjects and the duties of rulers.
Jean Bodin wrote on
A) the manners of courtiers.
B) questions of military tactics.
C) the purpose and character of sovereign authority in a state and practical limitations on royal power.
D) the characteristics of baroque art.
The principles of modern international law were developed by
B) Charles I.
C) Hugo Grotius.
Baroque architecture may be described as all of the following except
A) dynamic and emotional.
C) massive and full of movement.
D) severely precise and restrained.
Which of the following is inaccurate about the second half of the seventeenth century?
A) France developed an effective absolutist monarchy.
B) England experienced at least two changes in government.
C) The Dutch maintained Europe's most successful trading empire to date.
D) Central European powers continued to be decentralized and weak.
Louis XIV successfully established his absolutism because
A) the Parlement of Paris and the Estates General were rival institutions, thus dividing opposition to royal power.
B) aristocrats and bureaucrats could be co-opted by the king.
C) the latest revolt against the king, the Fronde, brought severe hardship to the urban population.
D) all of these
As a king, Louis XIV was
A) diligent and hard-working.
B) interested only in court ceremonies.
C) lazy and unintelligent.
D) unable to control the governmental machinery.
Louis XIV increased the efficiency of his government by
A) reducing the size of the High Council.
B) drawing his ministers from the bourgeoisie, not the nobility.
C) using intendants to circumvent tax farmers.
D) doing all of these.
All of the following are true of mercantilism except that it
A) emphasized national self-sufficiency in manufactured goods.
B) favored state control of trade.
C) greatly damaged the French economy.
D) was adopted by Colbert.
In the realm of religion, Louis XIV did all of the following except
A) establish a state church with himself as protector of the faith.
B) revoke the Edict of Nantes.
C) struggle with the puritanical Catholic reform movement called Jansenism.
D) use religion to claim a divine right to the throne.
Louis XIV's court had which effect on the nobility?
A) It was both a kind of compensation for lost political power and a means to further weaken it.
B) The rate of literacy among the nobility significantly increased.
C) Elegant, precise etiquette and clever conversations became signs of nobility.
D) all of these
Moliere and Racine were
A) the most important outposts of New France.
B) playwrights in the heyday of French drama.
C) mediocre playwrights whose work symbolized the cultural stagnation of absolutism.
D) two of Louis XIV's most successful ministers.
After 1683, the wars of Louis XIV
A) were much more successful and popular.
B) caused domestic hardship, revolts, and serious losses for France.
C) became shorter.
D) gained Louis possession of the entire Netherlands and the throne of Spain.
Political and religious opposition to Charles I of England resulted in
A) an enduring compromise between king and Parliament.
B) the permanent abolition of the monarchy in England.
C) the execution of Oliver Cromwell by the king.
D) civil war and execution of the king.
Cromwell is known for all of the following except
A) the dissolution of Parliament.
B) the brutal invasion of Ireland and the seizure of Irish property.
C) the establishment of a stable republic.
D) the division of England into districts run by the military.
Two years after Cromwell's death, a newly elected Parliament
A) engineered the Glorious Revolution.
B) proclaimed a new republic.
C) restored the monarchy under Charles II.
D) declared Cromwell's son king.
During the Restoration, Charles II exhibited
A) greater religious and political tolerance than Parliament.
B) greater political sense than his father.
C) cunning in accepting French subsidies.
D) all of these.
All of the following apply to the "Glorious Revolution" except that it
A) occurred in 1B) brought William and Mary to the English throne.
C) was a triumph for the monarchy.
D) established that future monarchs had to be Protestants.
In the seventeenth century, England experienced
A) a series of cataclysmic political events.
B) peace and prosperity indicative of a superior culture and institutions.
C) foreign invasions, unprecedented in its history.
D) peace and prosperity largely due to chance.
An important new German power that emerged after the Thirty Years' War was
C) the Palatine.
The internal political development of central and eastern European states was strongly influenced by
A) their role as major sources of rare material for the more urbanized parts of Europe.
B) rivalries among western European states.
C) the ambition of their rulers.
D) all of these.
Which of the following cannot be attributed to Leopold I of Austria?
A) The pursuit of political stability through religious tolerance
B) Efforts to free Hapsburg lands from the imperial institutions he, theoretically, headed
C) The recovery of most of Hungary from the Ottoman Turks
D) all of these
The "Great Elector" consolidated Brandenburg-Prussia through all of the following except
A) terminating Polish overlordship in Prussia.
B) maintaining the general war commissariat in peacetime and using the army to collect high taxes.
C) sponsoring state industries.
D) eliminating the Junkers.
Which of the following cannot be associated with the decline of Poland-Lithuania in the seventeenth century?
A) the growing power of the aristocracy over both peasants and gentry.
B) the resistance of Cossacks to enserfment.
C) destruction of the state and permanent partition.
D) demographic disaster and urban decline.
The dominant power on the Baltic coast in the seventeenth century was
The achievements of Peter the Great included
A) the fostering of ethnic Russian life and culture.
B) his determination to live in peace with neighboring countries.
C) Westernization of Russia and development of a powerful army and navy.
D) his resistance to European technology and culture.
In the seventeenth century, a global economic system emerged that
A) continued to expand dramatically.
B) saw the Dutch, French, and English successfully challenge Spain and Portugal.
C) had a crucial impact on life within Europe.
D) did all of these.
Factors in the success of the Dutch overseas trading empire included
A) the decline of its Baltic trade.
B) the discovery of rich silver mines in India.
C) the great benefits of the alliance with England.
D) technological improvements and formation of the Dutch East India Company and the Bank of Amsterdam.
All of the following were true of the Netherlands during this period except
A) a healthy merchant oligarchy and prosperous artisan sector.
B) a very high standard of living and the lowest disparity of wealth in Europe.
C) an almost exclusively Calvinist (Reforme
D) persistent political decentralization.
Profit from seventeenth-century European colonies in the Americas was increasingly based on
A) cash crops, especially sugar and tobacco.
B) extraction of wealth, such as silver, rather than production.
C) manufactured goods produced in the colonies.
D) drugs and herbal medicines produced by the Indians.
Comparing English and French colonization in North America reveals that
A) there was less reason for the French to leave France than for the English to leave England.
B) French trade was usually more profitable, partly because of friendlier relations with native populations.
C) the English colonists were more numerous and diverse than the French.
D) all of the above were true.
Features of European social and economic life in the seventeenth century included
A) the decline of Atlantic trading centers and the flourishing of Mediterranean ports.
B) the decline in urban population.
C) frequent peasant rebellions against higher taxes.
D) the abolition of the putting-out system.