Roman Empire Lecture
Lisa M. Lane 2010
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Roman Empire (Fall 2010)
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>> All right. People have submitted their homework today, which is great, and a lot of [inaudible] focus on the Empire Period, and I was just very happy to see that, not that I don't like the Republic. I think the Republic is really important, especially politically, because our form of government is based on republic, the Roman Republic. However, I find it far more interesting, and it looks like, judging from the [inaudible], so did you. Does that make sense? Did I read that correctly? [Inaudible] Oh, you might want to write your name on the top of this. I didn't think to put name; I didn't have a slot for that. Okay. One aspect I'd like to point out, though, before we get into the Empire, was how Rome spread, and we'll be talking about that too. So I'm going back just a smidge, just a little bit. Okay?


[ Inaudible remark ]

>> I do, and I [inaudible]. Okay. All right. The first thing we have to understand is how big it got, if we're going to focus on the Empire. Where did it start? Where did the Roman Empire start?

>> A small town or village.

>> A small town that became Rome, right? And then how did it spread? Which direction? If you were drawing it on a map --

>> North.

>> And you can draw a map, too, if you like. Okay, it kind of goes north and south at the same time. So to the south of Rome were what kind of people? What kind of [inaudible] did they conquer?

>> Carthage.

>> Carthage, eventually across to Carthage, but just in the southern part of Italy. Eventually they go up north to the [inaudible], but if they're heading south from Rome, which would be into southern Italy and into Sicily on their way to Carthage, what sorts of people were there; do you recall?


[ Inaudible response ]

>> The Etruscans went to the north -- into the south, yes.

>> Libyans?

>> Nope. The Libyans were part of Roman society. No, they were Greek colonies to the south, Etruscans to the north. Now the reason I made a point of that, is that they take on cultural characteristics of other people. Okay. To the south, they had Greek colonies. But just in Italy, now, before they get big. To the south, they had Greek colonies, and to the north, they had the Etruscans. The Etruscans were good at things like engineering; that's where the Romans get that. They also had really powerful governmental structure with a strong king, so they start, the Romans start that way, with a king. So they get their engineering ability and some of their artistic bent, but more the engineering, the building, the construction, the creation of concrete, that kind of stuff came from here. And then from the Greek colonies -- now you know all about the Hellenistic. What would the Romans have gotten from that, from their contact with Greek culture?

>> The artistic -

>> The artistic sensibility.

>> Poetry, writing, classic ideas.

>> Poetry, whiting, classic ideas. We can go further. Science. Philosophy. They would pick of all of that from the Greek colonies to the south. So all the stuff we talked about in the Hellenistic world, they pick up from the south. So the first expansion is this; then they start getting into the other stuff, like Carthage and Gaul, which is in modern day France, and expanding outward. And one of the reasons they do that so successfully is their military. Yes?


[ Inaudible remark ]

>> Yeah, they're the builders.


[ Inaudible remark ]

>> They -- think of them as occupying the top half there of Italy. Okay, it's not a big area, but it was a powerful, important culture, and they sort of stuck up Etruscan culture and Greek culture simultaneously. See some people think -- there's historians that have a theory that says that this is why the Romans became so great with this combo. That because they had the power and the skills from the Etruscans, and they have that, you know, global scientific view of the world and philosophy and science and the power of knowledge from the Greeks, it's that combination that makes them so great. That's why I'm making this point. Someone else had a question. I'm not sure if I can get this to play. I wanted to show you why the Romans militarily were able to [inaudible].

[ Inaudible remarks ] This is from Star Wars. It likes like it has nothing to do with Rome, but -

[ Pause ] All right, let's go to the Greeks. The Greeks fight in what's a called a phalanx formation, which means they all stay together in one big army. Yes, it's [inaudible] Okay. The Greeks used shields, big shields, shields that could cover. They used all their individual shields to make like a turtle formation and put the shields over everybody's head and around the sides, so they actually move in a monstrous defensive formation. The Romans worked completely differently. The Romans were modular. They worked in little pods of very tightly organized troops, what they called the Roman Legion. Don't worry about this weaponry.

[ Pause ] The fighting [inaudible] versus phalanx had been going on since before Alexander's time, and it was the way the Hellenistic empire was conquered. So what the Romans had was something new, something innovative in terms of strategy. The Italian soldiers who had been trained to march in formation, stay in small units, and the units move independently. Yes, the Greeks [inaudible]. But the Romans were more disciplined. They stayed together in little squares, and the square could move independently. Each square had its own leader. When you take the discipline of the Roman army and you put it up against the Greek turtle, what do you think happens?


[ Inaudible response]

>> Why does the turtle have trouble? I mean, they should be okay because they're defensive.


[ Inaudible response ]

>> Right. And notice how the individual Roman soldier, it doesn't really matter, the individual. But every individual holding a shield matters. So, ultimately you have the discipline of the Roman square fighting against the Greek phalanx formation. Almost every single battle the Romans are going to miss. Not all. There are clever ways to maneuver a phalanx around, but it's unusual. So this is considered one of the reasons for the speed of conquest, you know. I realize it takes a hundred years and we may not see that speed because that's what actually [inaudible] and it is a military conquest. This is not Alexander's cultural empire, this is a military conquest. So, they are taking and holding every square foot of land somehow in this pink area on the map. Questions on the expansion?

>> So they were moving [inaudible] more spread?

>> Not more spread. They were modularly [inaudible]. They're not more spread, but they are able to disconnect the squares and be more mobile. Okay? So rather than spreading out one army, they're dividing it into chunks, and then each chunk can move in its own direction, outflanking the enemy and finding the weak point in the phalanx. And they do that very, very effectively. Other questions about the expansion? And as you can see, they are able to defeat all those Greek influence areas that have adopted the phalanx in the Hellenistic era as their primary military formation, because people are always fighting the last war -- that's a theme, a historical theme -- and the last war that those people had had all over the Empire was against Alexander's army, and so they had picked up as a superior strategy was this one. [Inaudible] So when the Romans come along with a new strategy, new tactics, new formation, most of these places think they're ready and are ready. Yes, go ahead.


[ Inaudible remark ]

>> Not spread, don't think of it as spread out, this of them as a turtle formation. They're actually all together. So neither side is spread in the way you're thinking. Because if you spread out your troops too much, you make the edges vulnerable. So both sides do that. It's just they handled it differently. The Greeks handled it with one giant X formation defensively, and the Romans handled it with independent battalions under independent commanders that could move separately. So it's not so much an issue of spread or not spread. It's an issue of being -- what would you call it? Cohesive? I mean, what's the big thing? Modular I can use for the Romans. What would you call the -- what's the word?

>> For the Greeks?

>> Yeah, like what -- mass formation -- I mean, what it is?


[ Inaudible response ]

>> Maybe what? Yeah, sort of, I mean that's what the Romans kind of do to them, right, it looks like that from their perspective, but I don't know what to call the Greek formation, I mean other than --

>> Turtle --

>> Turtle is the best image I can come up with, or phalanx is the word for it, but what it means is that you've really got your whole army in one thing. Yes, like a unit, it's a big blob. I'll think of a word for that, okay. All right. The big issue, so now we get into the Empire which, I think, is the area of interest in here. I've divided the Empire into five areas, so for note taking purposes, some people, if you've never taken notes using the Cornell method before, it's very likely that these five words should be in that left-hand column, because I'm going to talk about each one of them in turn. This is a hierarchical lecture, not all of mine are. But I try to construct it so it's easy to take notes. So each one of these I'm going to talk a little bit about and try to make a key point. The emperors, themselves, the leaders. Here are three sub-points. Imperial power: trying to get a system where one person, one person, an individual is in charge of the entire Roman Empire, that huge pink area. Did that happen quickly or slowly, the development of that?

>> Slowly?

>> And how did it occur? If we wanted to use stages, in the first stage, Rome had a king, and then that sort of broke down and they end up with two houses of government, which are the house of representatives [inaudible], but they had the Patricians as one, the higher house, and the Plebeians controlled the lower house. Once you got to that formation, from our view of democratic republicanism, the executive power shouldn't become very big, right? We have balances on the executive power, but it does become big. How did that happen? Did you get any clues in the chapter of why emperors were able to become so hugely powerful?


[ Inaudible response]

>> Yes, who did that? Yes, occasionally we do have to use what they call the Great Man Theory, which is the idea that you get these individuals in history who make such extraordinary changes. It tends to hold society on a different trajectory. We can do that with Augustus, your book does it with Augustus. Your chapter is divided at Augustus. He was originally -- Octavian was his given name. He was a nephew of Julius Caesar, and he rose to power with the battle against Caesar and Cleopatra against the coalition of Egypt and the old style Roman rule. He came to power, and he said, I'm just first citizen in this princeps idea -- I'm a first citizen of Rome. I'm here, he said, to protect everybody's rights. Now in our Greek model -- do you remember our Greek model? What is he? Isn't he -


[ Inaudible ]

>> Yeah. That's where I put him. He's not really a monarch -- they had already gotten rid of their king. It's not really an oligarchy; it is later when some of these emperors had all their military commanders with them in their boardroom, but really, he's claiming to be. I'm not saying he is. I'm saying he's claiming to be there on behalf of the people to preserve the republican system, not to undermine it. So from my perspective looking back, I would say he undermined pretty darn well.


[ Inaudible ]

>> Exactly. That's whole idea of dictators, you know. That doesn't really fit into the republican or democratic idea, and originally they say it was temporary. [Inaudible] A dictator is somebody who is allowed to take over for no more than six months in a crisis, and then that dictator is supposed to step down. It's supposed to be crisis management, the dictatorship. It's not supposed to permanent, but what happens is emperors start considering that to be permanent, and then consider their power to be justified by the constitution, and if they have powerful friends in the senate and powerful friends in the military, they can become almost all powerful. And some of these emperors, getting to the second point, were crazy. The first [inaudible] descended from Julius Caesar's nephew; he's really more of a step-nephew, Octavian. I don't think Augustus was crazy at all. He was very sane; however, some of his descendents weren't so lucky. Nero is the one that always comes to mind, everybody criticizing Nero for playing the lyre while Rome burned down all around him. He used to give concerts that were required attendance concerts. Everybody had to come and listen to him play the lyre, which was like this string harpy thing. He was really, really bad, and you weren't allowed to leave. Women gave birth in there; people died and had to be carried out. Some people [inaudible]. He'd go on for hours; these were like six-hour concerts -- you can't leave to go pee, you know, I mean, it's bad. And he was just crazy. There was one of these guys, one of these emperors made his [inaudible] and gave him political power and built him a marble stall and had him draped in purple [inaudible]. And some of them were incredibly cruel and would just execute people because they didn't like them. They thought conspiracy was everywhere. Some of them were completely, completely nuts. Ultimately, that leads to, it is thought, the rise of what they call the Barracks Emperor, is where the military became so powerful they just killed the emperor if they don't like him and bring in a new one. So you end up with something like 46 emperors in the same number of years, you know, during one period, as we head towards the decline. And then ultimately, the government isn't in charge anymore. The emperors have no power, the empire is falling apart, the barbarians are invading and we get to the end. Why did it get so bad? These very fun historians have this theory about lead poisoning. They said that if you look at how Rome ate and drank and did their makeup, you've got clues to all this. Lead was a very popular substance. It was the foundation for face makeup, because you could get very white colors using lead-based makeup. They made their plates and cups out of it, and then they drank wine. Wine causes lead to leech out of the substance it's in, so then they're getting lead in their wine, and the water pipes that pipe the water to the villas of the rich were all made of lead. Poor people don't have so deal have any of it. Poor people were eating off of wooden plates. The pipes that brought water to the public areas -- because most of them didn't have water coming into their homes, like the great villas -- were made of clay. They didn't wear makeup, because it was expensive. So they didn't have as much -- and they drank milk, they didn't drink wine, which was expensive, they drank milk, which is actually an antidote for lead. So, the theory goes, and this is just kind of a, I'd say it's a factor, maybe, but there are historians who say it caused the entire decline and fall of the Roman Empire. But it does help explain sterility, for one thing. The aristocrats, the patricians, as you're getting near the end of the Empire, they aren't reproducing, which, to me, is very [inaudible]. But the reason why they're not reproducing may be this lead poisoning, because the cause is just not insanity, but sterility; you can't produce children. So the numbers of the aristocrats go down, the number of the poor people stay the same, they lose power, they lose their mind, they cannot control the Empire anymore. It's one of those interesting historical theories where historians have time on their hands and find something and make it into a really big something. All right. Questions, then, on emperors, because I've given you a serious fly over of this subject. Obviously there are entire books and History Channel specials written about the emperors of Rome, but are there any particular questions that you have or concerns about any of the -- or the emperors, themselves. I know they concern me. They're pretty weird. Some of them were good. Trajan wasn't bad, Hadrian was okay. You had some sensible emperors and they lead to some good writing and sensible activities, but, that first set of Julio-Claudians, they're really kind of strange. I'm looking to see who I gave you. Oh, Tacitus, for example. You read Tacitus about admitting provincials to the senate. Tacitus, himself, is writing during a time of good effort. You know, that [inaudible] production and the ability to write history and do good work in literature. It's hard to do that when your emperor is insane and is killing people for [inaudible]. All right. Technology. Again, here we are with they Etruscan influence. They were very good at technology and they do pull the whole Empire together. This is what makes it not just a cultural empire, not just a military empire, but an empire that is visible to everybody living in it, is that most of the technology they built was really big, really visible, really obvious. You knew you were in the Roman Empire. You couldn't just forget that Rome was there, even if you went thousands of miles from Rome, because the structures they made are all over the place. So, one is the water wheel. Now the Roman water wheel was based on, they think, the noria which actually comes from India. The noria's purpose is to lift water from a river and put it where you need it; up in the field or in some kind of track where it can go to the fields or, it lifts water up, and it uses the water itself to push the bucket. So if the river is flowing this way, the bucket is picking up the water and then the river is continuing to push it around and that's what raises the water. And if you think about it, it's pretty ingenious to figure that out. How to use the power water itself to lift the water and put it where you want it. It's pretty cool. It's the foundation, the noria, which was used all over the Hellenistic world to lift water for agriculture, and it was the foundation for the Roman water wheel. What the Romans are going to change about it, they're just not going to use it lift water, they're going to use it to create power. Because the circular motion of that wheel, if it's attached to a shaft, can make the shaft turn, and that shaft can do other things, and if you create gears that attach to it, you can actually run machines with this sort of technology. That's what the Romans do. So they take something that already exists, [inaudible], and they create something else out of it.


[ Inaudible ]

>> Yes, high tech. Seriously high tech and mass production, which is something they need to associate with the Romans. There was an aqueduct, when the water of the aqueduct is coming over the top of that wheel, and it's a huge wheel that can be used to run pretty much anything. What they used before, though, was food production, because the biggest need the Roman Empire had, particularly in big cities, was grinding enough flour so that everybody could eat. So they used -- this is a massive -- this one's in France, actually. It's one wheel after another and inside you can see inside there, are grindstones and gears, and they're grinding grains. I have no idea what the productive capacity of this is, but it looks big to me. It likes like you're producing lots and lots and lots of flour. Now in the City of Rome that was really important, because the city of Rome, they gave flour away. They just gave it to people. You didn't have to pay for it. You had to pay for all your other food, but not that. And in the cities, the people buying this, imagine how cheap it would be with a mill this large running 24/7 as long as it wasn't, you know, [inaudible]. As long as water is running you can do this. What do you think? It's massive. It's called the Vitruvian wheel because Vitruvius is the guy who first drew it out, but I wouldn't want to call him an inventor. It's very difficult when you go back and try to figure out who thought of something. There's no patent system or anything. But it's called the Vitruvian wheel after him. The Romans use it for grain. Later in the Middle Ages we'll see them use it for industry. We're not quite there, but it will be soon. Okay. Second big technology -- how are you doing in the left-hand column here. You've got technology? First we have water mills, right. Then we have roads. Okay. The road network is often misunderstood because you and I, being in Southern California, have a certain perception of what roads are for. What are they for? Driving, traveling, for what purpose?

>> Commuters.

>> Commuters, transportation, people, shoppers, everybody, ordinary people, everybody uses the roads. That's not what the Roman road system was for.

>> For trade routes?

>> It's what?

>> They were trade routes?

>> No, they're not. That's what I thought at first, too. No, they're not trade routes. They become trade routes later after the Romans are gone, but that's not what they're built for.


[ Inaudible remark].

>> No, it's not the aristocrats, it's the military. Who said military? Yeah. It's the military. So the whole thing is a military network. It designed to get troops -- it's designed to get these guys from one place to another quickly and efficiently. That's what the system is for. Now, if merchants want to use it, if other people want to use it, obviously there aren't troops on every part of every road all of the time. But they're not made -- for example, they're not built -- if you've got a town over here and town over here and no real road in between, the Romans aren't going to build the road there unless it happens to be where the military need to go. They might build the road here, and your two towns are still separated. They don't care. They're not building it for trade. They're building it to get the military efficiently from one place to another in case there's any trouble anywhere. And you can see there's extensive road networks in Carthage, in Asia Minor, in Gaul, in Spain; yeah, they would need to be able to get to the edges of their empire quickly and move around it efficiently. That's what it is for. So these roads that they built that later are used for those purposes, are not built for those purposes, but boy, are they built to last. This is the Via Appia. This is a section of it that hasn't been paved over by blacktop, but most of it has been paved over by blacktop and people still use it. This is the road that goes from Rome to the sea. And you can see they are building it. This is a recent picture of an unpaved part that's been kept that way so people can see that they're building it with layers of gravel. They start at the bottom with sand, and then gravel, and then your stones to allow drainage, because it's very rainy, but very sandy in Italy. And you build it with stones together at the top, and you want to be able to have movement in between the stones for shrinkage or snow or heat, those kinds of things. And it's still there. And it looks pretty good. And the paved part cars drive over every day. They built them to last forever. In the cities, they also built them to last, and here's our idea of sidewalks, if you want to know who invented sidewalks. Keep people out of the mud in the street. Better than our sidewalks where we have to step down in the street and cross the yucky street to get to the other side. What's it look like they can do here?

>> Step up.

>> They have stepping stones to cross the street. Do you think that's for the convenience of the pedestrians?

>> Yes.

>> Hardly. They like it, but it's not built for them. What would be another purpose of having stones, especially if the stones are in the exact same place on every corner?

>> To stop?

>> No, they're not stopping. They slow traffic down, that's for sure, which is important. What else -- I'm sorry?


[ Inaudible remark ]

>> Right, and then that slows them down, but what else would it do? Let's say you have a cart where the wheels are this far apart, and you have another cart where the wheels are this far apart, and it's time to go to Rome, and this big cart over here would jam up the street, you know, you wouldn't be able to pass it. They're regulating the width of the cart wheels that come through town so that traffic can pass on both sides of every street and move efficiently. Nobody can bring in a big truck that's going to block the road because they have to make their vehicles so that the wheels can go in between the stones. How's that for social engineering? That's really smart. It's really smart. And it means that everything that comes into town, all the trade, all the traffic, all the people going around, either have to be on a horse or they've got to be in a vehicle that's of a certain width so that they can pass each other. And they don't have to make a law, the Romans, they love law. They don't have to make a law that says your cart can only be this wide. All they've got to do is that, and the carts will own be that wide. It's an interesting technological solution to a traffic problem. At the same time they've got the wonderful sidewalks that left mud on people's clothes and all of those kinds of things and the overhangs from the buildings for a little bit of shade. Interlocking stones in most Roman towns that still exist; this is still under the street. Third technology, aqueducts. I never spell this word [inaudible], but I think I've got it right here. Okay, when I used to think of aqueducts I didn't realize how big they were. You could kind of see it in that waterwheel picture, but the picture on the left is going across the Spanish countryside; these things are huge. If you didn't have a water wheel where you could see it, you'd look somewhere out in the Empire, and if you weren't near one of those wonderful roads, you'd probably be near one of these. You're never in a spot where you don't know you're in the Roman Empire. But I'd look at something like that and I'd say, where the hell is the water? Where's the water? I see the big -- where's the water. And so, I found this picture that showed me where the water was. It's in the top. Some of them actually have a little open channel on the top for another flow, but this means you can go in two different directions; you've got two different pipes in there. So when you get to a destination you can split them off into two different areas. They originally started bringing water from the hills around Rome and the snow packs down into the city where, of course, millions of people lived and they needed the water. And so they could split them off, if you have channels like that, you can have channel gates, and you can cut them off. There was always one branch that went to the great villas of the rich. There was one branch that went to the public facilities, the gymnasiums, the fountains, and there was one branch that went to the poor neighborhoods where most people lived. If there was a little bit of a drought, we know about droughts here, right, in southern California. Yeah, which one do you shut off.


[ Inaudible remark ]

>> Yeah, you shut off the ones to the poor neighborhoods, because they can go get their water from the public areas, from the fountains and stuff. And of course, your rich are running the government, so you don't cut off the villas, right, you don't cut their water, that would be bad? How would they have their big feasts where everybody eats until they're sick? You know. Yeah, luckily lead poisoning is not very immediate, but over eating is. They have these room is called vomitoriums off of the, right next to the dining room, and you were expected to binge and purge. It wasn't an illness, it was a societal expectation of the elite, the patrician class to serve these sumptuous dinners, and you wanted to bring in things to eat from all over this vast empire. So like, peacock, and yeah, exotic game animals to eat, and so I think some people probably weren't just using the vomitorium because they were full. Some of the stuff sounded pretty gross to me, to actually --


[ Inaudible remark ]

>> Oh, sure, oh, absolutely, no, I think back further, I'd go back to the Greek symposium. The Greeks used to get smashing drunk, and [inaudible] At least that far, and probably back into the Egyptian beer production where they used to have these huge beer parties in ancient Egypt. [Inaudible] But the Romans made it a fine art among the elite. You binge and purge and come back and eat more. You were expected to go through seven, eight courses, and the dinner would last, you know from, you know, 8 in the evening until 4 in the morning, and yeah, I mean how else would you keep up if you didn't get rid of it now and again. So, that sort of thing, so you really don't want to shut off the water, is my point, to the villas. That would be bad. They need their sanitation system more than most. The city, itself, -- oh, this is hard to see -- the city itself was terribly crowded and the slums take up about a third of the city. If you can imagine the big city of Rome, the villas take up about a third, the slums take up about a third, the public areas take up about a third, and fires in the slums would just -- You can see these four-story buildings, tenement houses, lots of wood, brick construction, wooden roofs, wooden railings, you know, fire was the major problem. It would periodically just destroy an area of the slum. Rome did not have a public fire department. Rome had private fire departments. Crassus was one of the tribunes, along with Caesar, Julius Caesar, and he created his own private fire department. The way it worked was this: you had your building, let's say you were the landlord, and your apartment building is burning down. Crassus would show up with the truck -- of course we know how wide it the wheels are, right? He'd show up in the cart with the water and come up to the guy and say, you know, I'll be happy to put out the fire, if you'll sell me the building, and I'll pay this much for your building. No, I don't want to sell the building, this is how I make my living. Well, that fire is still burning, so the price is going down. You decide at what point you want us to start saving the building, and we'll start saving the building. And that's how he bought up most of the properties of Rome, was through his fire department. This is not the way we think of the fire department. This is not a civic fire department, this is Crassus' personal fire department, and he used it to become a slumlord for about a third of the territory of the Roman city, so he could rebuild and collect rent. What do you think? Yeah, how are we doing into ethics here? Yeah, not very well. But it worked. [Inaudible] Yes, he made a lot of money. He definitely increased his political control. But it gives you an idea, the reason I tell you the story is not because I want you to hate Crassus, it's because I need you to understand how crowded this place was, how miserable it was, why they wanted all those water wheels making bread, or rather grain, the people could take the grain. So the second aspect of the Roman city has to do with bread and entertaining the public. How are you going to prevent people in crowded conditions from [inaudible]?

>> Keep them entertained.

>> Keep them entertained --

>> Feed them.

>> -- and feed them. They call this bread and circuses after the Romans who provided free flour with those industrial mills to everybody in the city of Rome. They also provided very low-cost entertainment, pennies to get into a gladiator fight, you know. It was cheap to go watch one of the Roman entertainment, some of the blood sports. It kept everybody amused and entertained so they didn't notice how miserable they were living in the slums of Rome. It still works. The technique still works. If you give people enough entertainment, particularly low-cost, cheap entertainment, they won't do much about the political system. They are whole theories, sociological theories on this. It's possible to distract ordinary people rather easily from what's wrong politically and from what needs to be fixed by providing them with good entertainment. Do you have a question?


[ Inaudible remark ]

>> It's not really bread. What it was, it's called bread in the bread and circuses idea, but it's the free flour. If you give people enough to feed themselves, okay, how can they complain? If they're given enough to keep themselves alive, so flour they would just mix with water and some yeast and make bread. They'd make bread in their homes, so they never starved. They wouldn't eat well, but they'd never starve in Rome.

[ Pause ] Just to give you an example of sometimes the book is not very good about showing you about what people looked like then. You know about the togas, right? That they wore these, the cloth. Ordinary Romans and elite Romans, these guys up in the upper right-hand corner, that's Emperor Nero and his lovely wife and her maid, very elegant. Ordinary people would dress more like this, more upper class, military. He's a criminal of some kind. These are middle class people living and working in town, merchant-type people. They -- civilization is really important to them. The citizenship was really important, too. The idea that you're a Roman citizen means you're protected by the laws of Rome and Roman [inaudible]. So citizenship was sometimes extended and sometimes not to other people. It depended on what the government thought at the time. That's what happened as we're talking about, you take these provincials, people who are at the outskirts and you're making them Romans by letting them sit in the senate. You're making them citizens. And sometimes that was done for reasons that were a little weird. For example, Sicily, which is just south of Italy, the Sicilians were made citizens of Rome because they grew grain cheaper than Roman farmers did. So if they made them citizens, what would that do?


[ Inaudible remark ]

>> Then their grain becomes, you know, part of Roman market. What do you think the Roman farmers thought about that?


[ Inaudible remark ]

>> Very upset, they were very upset when the Sicilians were given citizenship in Rome, because it meant that their grain would enter the system without a tariff on it, so that the price of their own grain would go down and they'd make less money. A lot of times people were given citizenship for economic reasons, or they were given citizenship because the prince of that particular Hellenistic empire was a friend of somebody who was a friend of somebody. So that there was political corruption in this, but being a citizen was very important and it was something that people were very proud of. No matter how far they were from Rome, they felt they could be in any part of Roman Empire and be respected because they were citizens. They were not just subject to Roman law, but protected by it. And the way they dressed was designed to reflect some of that pride. [Pause] How are these guys dressed?


[ Inaudible remark ]

>> Yeah, they're barbarians. Rugged.

>> They're rugged, oh, I like that word. But not rugged like REI. Right?

>> Rough around the edges.

>> Rough around the edges. That's awfully kind. Come on.


[ Inaudible remark ]

>> These guys, no these are dolls, actually.

>> I thought they were dolls, but --

>> Yes, no they're dolls.

>> I thought at the beginning of the Christian era --

>> Yeah, well that's just when they, that just when they happened to draw people in what they would be wearing around, you know, in 585 or something, but, yeah, basically these are dolls and those guys look like savages to me, but, yes. So what's different? Shall I go back? How do you go back?

[ Inaudible remark ]

>> Are you sure?

>>[ Inaudible remark]

>> Okay, I'll remember that. I've got to tuck that in somewhere. Okay. Look at the Romans, look at the barbarians. I'll say it again. Look at the Romans, and look at the barbarians. What's different.

>> They look more like tribesmen.

>> They look tribal, they do. They look tribal, but what else is different?

>> They look like they're ready to fight.

>> Facial hair, facial hair, facial hair. Who's the only person in this picture who has facial hair, can you tell? That's important. The Romans really liked shaving. They liked the whole thing about shaving. They liked the blade, and making the blade really, really sharp and getting a good shave. That was like, showing they were technologically superior because they had good razors. So, what about these guys? What's a razor?

>> The longer your beard, the more you're noticed.

>> Exactly. What else is different, again, Romans --

>> They came ready to fight.

>> Yeah, they are carrying their weapons, and the only person we have here is the military guy and he's not carrying a weapon, but, you know, he could. They carried weapons.

>> They're wearing like cloth, and the other ones are like wearing, like, is that like chain or like leather.

>> Yes, they're wearing leather and they're wearing [inaudible], they're wearing linens which was very popular, because it draped so nicely in a toga.

>> It's like fashion -

>> [Inaudible] Remember, they're in [inaudible], these guys are from Rome, they're in the south, it's warm. Okay. And these guys are from the north and it's cold. [Inaudible] but just, the way that they look and the way that they're dressed is very, very different. Now the other thing to keep in mind is that these guys are short, and these guys are tall. Okay. Italian people from the area of Rome tend to be a little on the diminutive side, and these guys tend to be much taller. Now, at the time everybody was smaller anyway, so it's more like a relative thing. Italians tend to be small, dark, shaven, and clad in linen. Barbarians tend to be big, unshaven, burly, muscular, and clad in skins, cotton, whatever they've got. These guys are scary. See, the only thing about that [inaudible] document that I want you to be aware of, is when he's talking about provincials sitting in the senate, that could be extended to concern about these guys sitting in the senate. These guys, by the way, are not just the enemy of Rome, they're at the edges of the empire which means a lot of these guys are Roman collaborators. The Roman army couldn't possibly be at every edge of the entire Empire all the time. What they did was they collaborated with the tribal people who were at the edge of Empire to keep the tribal people who were beyond the edge of Empire out. So these guys were supposed to colleagues. Do you see any possible cultural problem with that? In many ways they are the opposite of the people who they're collaborating with, and they're scary, and they're smelly. The Romans like to bathe. You know about the Roman baths? They were all over. There were public facilities that I told you about. They got the water. They're getting the water so that these people can bathe. If you didn't have a bathroom -- bathrooms are Roman inventions. You had bathroom in your home if you had a villa. You had water coming right into the house and sink, and people bathed all the time. It was considered to be a civilized thing to do. Even the poor people bathed. There were public baths and you went and paid a very small amount to sit in a hot tub of soap and use some soap and get yourself clean. And if you had a little more money you could even get a massage, you know. Public baths, Romans stayed clean. It was part of civilization. You built a town, you used stone, you made a street. You get a step away from nature here. You start creating manmade environments, concrete, stones, wooden pillars, a civilized society, and you bathed. You learned to read. You made sure your children, if you had enough money, learned to read. You would look at a political career and maybe see if they could get into the senate if you're a patrician, or get them a good merchant job, maybe a slave trader or something if you are a plebeian. A lawyer, your son could be a lawyer if you're a plebeian, with a little education, and everybody is a big step away from nature and they're staying clean. Baths, they had baths in every town. They're still digging up Roman baths it's everywhere. You've got a whole city in England called Bath. Guess what that's based on. Okay. And then you've got -- what's a bath. These guys came into the senate, sat in the back, wouldn't check their armor at the door. It was a rule in the Roman senate that you were supposed to hand over your weapons. You're not supposed to go in with your weapons. They're like, I'm not going anywhere without my weapon. This place is weird. Well, they're going into an enclosed space. I mean, imagine these people who live in [inaudible] in huts, and they're going into this gigantic Roman senate made of stone. So I'd bring my weapon too. That place is scary. And they wouldn't go in without their weapons. And these again are the barbarians who are given, get this - Roman citizenship -- because they need them. They need them at the edges of the Empire to keep out the worse, more smelly barbarians on the other side.


[ Inaudible remark]

>> Yes.

>> It seems how this was like built on Roman tradition.

>> It was built on Roman transition and all that. He doesn't have to talk about how they smell, everybody knows that already. Yes. Exactly. Who are these people and what are they doing there? I couldn't even fit them on a single page. I had to actually get an atlas with two pages and scan it to show you who these barbarians are who are coming into Rome and what they're doing. How do you feel with this topic?

>> Not very well.

>> You know, what perspective, I'm trying to remember, what is their perspective on the barbarians. Did they like them? I don't think -- you know, I'm trying to remember if they take a Roman view. Are they insulting?

>> They don't like them.

>> They don't like them.

[ Inaudible remark] I think you're going to see their point of view better [inaudible]. Yeah, I think you're going to see their view in the next chapter, even more than in this chapter. Here is the Roman view of these guys, and this will lead you into next week, too. These guys are coming into Rome to try to destroy it. What they didn't realize, you can see Rome is way over here. And what I wanted to show you with the double map, is that there's something global going on. See, they're not groups of wild, smelly barbarians suddenly deciding they want to invade Rome to kill everybody. This is a push that's coming all the way from China with the Hsiung-Nu, which is where we get the term Hun. The Hsiung-Nu in China began standing -- and something probably kind of related happened over here, we're not sure exactly what it was, but all of a sudden all of the pastoral people are on the move. Do you know what pastoral means?


[ Inaudible remark ]

>> What do pastoral people do? Yes. All of that. They are animal raisers. And animals have to have feed, and so if your area dries up, if the grasses dry up, you have to move. So all of a sudden, here pastoral people begin moving that way, and then, of course, they hit other pastoral people, and sometimes they are wars and conflict, and sometimes there is marriages and trade, and sometimes there's both. And what starts happening is a push westward, a massive push that starts all the way in China, and ends up at the edge -- I mean, where else are they going to go. You fall off the continent eventually. They end up pushing to the edges of the Romans Empire and the edge of the Eurasian continent, because they're being pushed by people behind them who are being pushed by people behind them, who are being pushed by people behind them until they're sort of crammed into Rome. They come in looking for new places to live, the same kind of places they came from. They want forested areas where they can cut down some trees and do a little farming. But what is the Roman Empire full of instead?

>> Cities.

>> Cities. What about the stuff? What was the technology?

>> Water, aqueducts.

>> They're going to have aqueducts, they are going to see roads, they're going to see all of those things that everybody else is so proud of.

>> All the land's already taken.

>> All the land's already taken, it's all fenced up. Okay, what are you going to do? You're a barbarian who needs about 60 acres and some trees for your tribe.

>> Take it over.

>> Take it over, take the land. The buildings? What about the buildings?

>> Store them.

>> Well, you don't even need them. I mean, sometimes they would take really nice buildings and bathhouses, and they would fill in the floor with dirt and fill in the bath with dirt and stick horses in there. You want the horses out of the weather. Which is why it's so hard for archaeologists today, you know, they're trying to dig up mosaics and stuff in the great villas, and then, you know, 800 years of horses in there. Yeah, they don't care about that stuff. So I think you can see it from the Roman perspective, that, you know, these people have come to destroy our civilization, but can't you also see it from the barbarians' perspective? You know, who needs all this stuff?

>> So, surviving --

>> Yes, you're trying to survive in this kind of -- all right. Now, let's review -

[ Inaudible remark] This is sort of my way of review, but it's [inaudible]. Did any of you notice that from Monty Python? Do you know who Monty Python is? [Inaudible remark] This is older obviously, this is not your generation, actually. But the idea is, is it's a comedy troop out of England and they made a movie that was during the Roman Empire. And this is a very silly revolutionary trying to overthrow them. And they are in Judea, a Roman colony -- this is where the, many of the Jews are, but not all of them, this is where Christianity emerges, too. But in complaining about Rome they end up describing all the Roman countries I just talked about, so I wanted you to see it, and then we'll check it out.

[ Video is playing ] The Roman word for peace is pax, the Pax Romana that you read about, what does that mean? Does that mean no killing at all?

[ Pause ] Pax Romana. Do you remember that from the chapter? Am I jumping ahead or, no, okay. Pax Romana, what is it?


[ Inaudible remark ]

>> But does it mean that nobody was killed by Roman troops? You've got soldiers marching all over the road. What are they doing? Yes?


[ Inaudible remark ]

>> Yes. The idea, and again, let me emphasize idea rather than reality. The idea of peace within the Empire, it doesn't mean that the Roman Army wasn't continually actively killing people at the edges of the Empire, or that it wasn't continually actively keeping peace internally, but it's more like keeping the peace. Think of the Pax Romana as peace keeping rather than everybody at peace. Okay. Let's review in more depth.

[ Pause ] All right. What have you got before this, before the five points.

>> The origins Rome.

>> Um-hum.

>> The origins of Rome?

>> The origins of Rome. And what did people write in the left column for that?

>> Rome's influences.

>> Rome's influences. Rome's beginning, and the first item, the first factual items you have there are what?

>> The south end of the Greek colonies in the north and the Etruscans.

>> Is that what everybody's got? Everybody's got it? Okay, now, what did you write about the Etruscans?

>> That it's all about powerful government, and they believed in engineering.

>> Engineering, okay. What else. Does anybody have anything in addition to powerful government and engineering?


[ Inaudible remark]

>> I'm sorry, what was it? Go ahead. Yeah, there's artistic motifs that come from the Etruscans too. There are also [inaudible]. What else about the Greeks? Science, poetry, culture, yes. All that can be wrapped into culture as we were putting it all together, that's Greek culture. Okay. Good. What's next on the outline?

>> Military domination.

>> Okay. Military domination. How many people wrote Star Wars? Nobody? You don't remember about how -- [inaudible]. Okay. Paternal.

>> The legion, Greek phalanx versus the legion.

>> Greek phalanx versus the legion. Does everybody have that? Something about the phalanx versus the legion and some kind of, whatever you use, drawings. I mean some people might have put drawings in their notes, because that can communicate an idea a lot faster than words. I know a lot of people take notes from words. No reason for that. And, in fact, using arrows to connect ideas and that kind of thing, that can work, too. You don't have to stick to the Cornell format all the time. Once you get used to doing this, you can do it absolutely your own way, and a lot of people draw, and that's really, really helpful. What's next. Yes.

>> Well, I wrote down that Nero played a lot, did a lot of concerts.

>> Okay. So you've got, on the first point for emperor, I gave you examples, and Nero is an example. What was the larger point of the example I was giving.

>> Imperial power.

>> Imperial power, was very great.

>> Lead theory.

>> I'm sorry, yeah we get down to the lead theory of kind of the destruction of society. What else up in the first point, though?

>>[ Inaudible remark ]

>> Okay. First we've got stuff about power, and then it sort of ties into the insanity idea, as well. Some of them were pretty nutty about their power, and then you should have some notes on the lead theory, at least that there is one, right. So if I were to ask you a question on the test, for example, that had something about, you know, what are reasons that this Western Roman Empire fell apart, or was destroyed. Are there hints in your notes right there of how you'd answer that question? Because I didn't lecture that much on the fall, and yet, you've got stuff in there. Here's the first item, right? You've got some ideas hear about insanity at the top, too much power at the top, may be mixed in with some of the lead theory and stuff. That might be a reason that Rome started having trouble. Did anybody write down, I'm just curious, about the military component of the emperors, about the Barracks Emperors and [inaudible] a lot of them all at once in a row? How many people wrote something about that, got that detailed with the notes? That's good. If you did that detail, again, can be examples for larger things. And you can do the exact same thing with your textbook chapter that you just did with my lecture, pulling out details, and making up. In fact, you'll notice on the handout about taking notes, there's a whole thing in there about how to take notes out of a book, how do you pull out from a book, what's useful, and take notes from a book. I know a lot of people nowadays don't like to write in their books if you want to sell it back. Then that makes note taking outside of your book really important. And you can use this for that, as well. Okay. I want your name on these, put your name at the top of your notes, your Cornell note page. Keep the other handout, turn in your homework and that page of notes. I'll just check it and give it back to you to put in your portfolio. It will come right back to you on Wednesday. Wednesday is lab day. Don't forget your laptop. You've got to have it on Wednesday. Then we need it.